Patterns of Global Terrorism –2003
Released by the Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism
April 29, 2004
East Asia Overview
The capture by Thai authorities in August of top Jemaah Islamiya (JI) leader and al-Qaida’s representative in Southeast Asia, Nurjaman Riduan bin Isomuddin (a.k.a. Hambali) was a significant victory in the global war on terrorism. Hambali, an Indonesian, was captured at an apartment complex in Ayutthaya, Thailand, and is suspected of masterminding numerous terrorist attacks in Southeast Asia, including the Christmas Eve church bombings in 2000 in Indonesia (19 dead, 47 wounded); the bombings on 30 December 2000 in metro Manila, Philippines (22 dead); the Bali attacks on 12 October 2002 (202 dead, more than 330 wounded); and possibly the J.W. Marriott Hotel bombing on 5 August 2003 in Jakarta (12 dead, over 150 wounded). Furthermore, Hambali was key in planning terrorist attacks with multiple targets in Singapore, disrupted in December 2001, and in planning Thailand attacks that were disrupted in May 2003. Hambali’s capture and detention serves as a major blow to both JI and al-Qaida. In 2003, as Hambali’s capture illustrates, it became clearer that the Asia-Pacific region, primarily Southeast Asia, is an attractive theater of support and logistics for al-Qaida and a theater of operations for the regional terrorist group Jemaah Islamiya, acting alone or in collaboration with indigenous extremist groups. Hambali’s case — an Indonesian national perpetrating attacks in Indonesia and the Philippines and planning attacks in Singapore and Thailand — serves as a case in point and accurately reflects the transnational nature of the terrorist threat in Southeast Asia.
Overall, counterterrorism cooperation with Asian governments was good in 2003, and solid progress was made to close seams between jurisdictions and share information on terrorist groups and their activities. As governments in the region continued their efforts to arrest and interdict terrorists by building and improving their counterterrorism capabilities, JI and other terrorists adapted by focusing on softer Western targets in Southeast Asia. The bombing on 5 August 2003 of the J.W. Marriott Hotel in Jakarta that killed 12 marks a continuation of this trend. This attack galvanized the Indonesian Government’s will to take action.
Although most indigenous terrorist and Muslim separatist groups in Indonesia, Malaysia, the southern Philippines, and Thailand share an ideology and general rejection of Western influence held by international Islamic terrorists, they are focused primarily on effecting change within their home countries. Many leaders of Southeast Asian groups fought or claim to have fought in Afghanistan in the “Jihad” and brought back critical skills and contacts — along with burnished extremist credentials. The relationships formed in Afghanistan developed into a widening network in which local extremists were able to tap into international terrorist networks for operational support, training and/or funds, and vice versa. The net effect of the influence of such groups is to decrease the likelihood of peaceful and long-term solutions to separatist movements/ethnic conflicts, to exacerbate current regional terrorism, and to foster an environment conducive to terrorism’s continued growth.
Extremists have been able to win supporters by financially supporting schools and mosques that espouse their brand of Islam and exploiting religious sympathies or discontent among Muslim populations. Muslim populations in the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and Cambodia are vulnerable to such radical influences.
Partners such as Australia, Japan, the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand, and others are working with the United States to assist governments in the region to overcome these challenges by providing training and assistance. The primary tools to build such capacity remain bilateral engagement programs, but much progress was made in working multilaterally to promote regional and transnational approaches to the challenges of counterterrorism. Building upon the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Regional Forum (ARF) for Counterterrorism Workplan, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Counterterrorism Task Force, and other mechanisms, the region as a whole made advances in areas such as law enforcement, border control, transportation security, information sharing, antiterrorist financing, and the development of legal regimes.
Australia and Japan maintained their strong counterterrorism stance in 2003, both domestically and abroad. Senior officials from both countries publicly declared their firm commitment to work with the United States to combat terrorism over the long term in a meeting of the three counterterrorism ambassadors in November in Canberra. Australia and Japan continue to contribute to the war on terrorism in Afghanistan. Australia made strong contributions to the US-led Coalition in Iraq, while Japan’s October passage of the Iraq Reconstruction Assistance Law, which includes provision for dispatching the Japan Self-Defense Forces to Iraq, reflects its strong commitment to assist in reconstruction and humanitarian efforts (deployment, in fact, took place in early 2004).
Australia and Japan are active in helping Asia-Pacific countries build their capacity in various international and regional forums to combat terrorism. Australia, for example, has broadened its network of bilateral counterterrorism arrangements in Southeast Asia to eight nations. The APEC Leaders’ Summit in 2003 endorsed two Australian counterterrorism-related initiatives: advancement of passenger information systems and development of a regional movement-alert system. Japanese officials led seminars on immigration control, aviation security, customs cooperation, export control, law enforcement, and terrorist financing. In May, Cambodian authorities arrested one Egyptian, two Thais, and one Cambodian suspected of being members of JI. The cell was plotting to conduct terrorist attacks in Cambodia and had been operating out of an Islamic school on the outskirts of Phnom Penh run by the Saudi Arabia–based nongovernmental organization, Umm al-Qura.
China continues to take a clear stand against international terrorism and is broadly supportive of the global war on terror. China actively participated in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and engaged in SCO joint counterterrorism exercises in Kazakhstan and Xinjiang Province in August. The People’s Bank of China is in the process of establishing an Anti-Money Laundering Bureau, which will include a Terrorist Finance Investigative Department. Beijing displays a general willingness to cooperate with international terrorism investigations and continues to assert that terrorists — primarily based in Xinjiang Province — operate on Chinese territory.
Indonesia continued its firm public stance against terrorism in 2003. The government, led by the Indonesian National Police, has taken effective steps to counter the threat posed by JI, arresting 109 suspected JI members — most in 2003 — including suspects in the Bali attacks, the Marriott attack, and other criminal acts linked to terrorism. Indonesia has adopted a comprehensive terrorism law defining various acts of terror and providing police and prosecutors with broader powers to combat terrorism — such as extended pretrial detention periods and the use of electronic evidence in court.
Nevertheless, persistent Indonesian domestic sensitivities, political pressures, and institutional weaknesses limit the Government’s effectiveness. The Government, for example, made little effort to investigate the activities and affiliations of six students suspected of terrorist involvement who were deported from Pakistan in early December 2003; two were released within days of their repatriation to Indonesia.
On 1 July, Malaysia established a Southeast Asia Regional Center for Counterterrorism (SEARCCT). SEARCCT is expected to focus on regional training, information sharing, and public awareness campaigns. In August, SEARCCT hosted a training program sponsored by the US Treasury’s financial intelligence unit and Malaysia’s Central Bank on combating terrorist financing. Other nations, including the United Kingdom, Germany, and Australia, are also expected to provide trainers and training materials to the center.
Malaysia has detained more than 100 suspected terrorists under the Internal Security Act (ISA) since May 2001 and assisted Indonesian efforts to prosecute terrorist suspects by making video testimony from suspects in Malaysian custody available to Indonesian prosecutors. Malaysia has responded quickly to UN Security Council requirements to prohibit terrorist financing and freeze the assets of named entities. In September, Malaysia deposited the instruments of ratification for two international antiterrorism conventions: the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings and the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons. It has not yet become a party, however, to the critical International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism.
New Zealand appointed its first Ambassador for Counterterrorism in September to build upon the measures taken since the attacks of September 11 in the United States and to ensure that New Zealand has a stronger capacity to develop and implement policies on global terrorism and related security issues. New Zealand continues to support Operation Enduring Freedom. It deployed troops to Iraq and Afghanistan to participate in the reconstruction efforts and pledged to provide humanitarian aid, as well as keeping its previous commitment of sending military forces to the region.
The Philippines was the victim of a number of terrorist attacks in 2003, including the car-bomb attack adjacent to a military airfield in Cotobato, on the southern island of Mindanao on 21 February; the bombing on 4 March at the International Airport in Davao, Mindanao that killed 17 (including one US citizen); the Sasa Wharf bombing on 2 April also in Davao that killed 15; a series of bombings in Koronadal City, Mindanao, that took more than 15 civilian lives; as well as a number of kidnappings-for-ransom operations.
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and other Philippine officials continue to be outspoken supporters of the global Coalition against terrorism and have been swift and direct in condemnation of terrorist acts, both domestic and international. The Government of the Philippines created a multiagency counterterrorism task force chaired by the National Security Advisor and consisting of officials from 34 Philippine Government agencies representing the security, economic, and social components essential for an effective counterterrorism strategy. In October, the Philippine Government ratified the remaining six of the 12 United Nations counterterrorism conventions.
Philippine authorities made several significant arrests of suspected terrorists in 2003. In May, security forces arrested a sub-commander of the separatist Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) involved in the explosion of 30 December on a Manila commuter train that killed 22 people. In October, a JI operative was arrested at a JI safehouse in Cotabato City, on the southern island of Mindanao. In December, Philippine Armed Forces captured Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) leader “Commander Robot,” a leader of one of the main ASG factions responsible for numerous kidnappings and bombings during the last decade, including the kidnapping in April 2000 of Western tourists from the Malaysian resort of Sipadan.
Despite its overall positive record, Manila continues to face setbacks and challenges on the counterterrorism front. In July, a senior Indonesian JI operative escaped from Philippine National Police headquarters in Manila along with two suspected ASG members. All three were eventually killed or recaptured.
Singapore continued its strong public and private opposition to terrorism and maintained vigorous counterterrorism action in bilateral and multilateral contexts. There were no acts of international or domestic terrorism in Singapore in 2003, although authorities continued investigation and detentions of members of JI, which plotted to carry out attacks in Singapore in the past.
During 2003, Singapore continued its cooperation with a variety of governments, including the United States, to investigate terrorist groups, especially JI, through both intelligence and law-enforcement channels. Singapore provided Thailand information that ultimately led to the arrest in May of a Singaporean JI member in Thailand. As a result of that investigation, Thai authorities also arrested several Thai citizens believed to be members of a JI cell plotting to blow up five embassies in Bangkok, including the US Embassy. Singapore provided key information that helped Thailand track down and arrest top JI leader Hambali in August and also facilitated video testimony of three of its ISA detainees in the Indonesian trial of JI spiritual leader Abu Bakar Bashir in August.
Thailand’s domestic and international counterterrorism efforts, which were bolstered in the wake of the deadly bombing in Bali, Indonesia, in October 2002, intensified during 2003. Prime Minster Thaksin Shinawatra publicly expressed the will of the Royal Thai Government to cooperate closely with the United States and other nations in fighting the global war on terror. In August, Thai authorities captured top JI leader with close ties to al-Qaida, Nurjaman Riduan bin Isomuddin (a.k.a. Hambali) in Ayutthaya, Thailand. In June and July, Thai authorities in southern Thailand arrested four men suspected of being either JI supporters or operatives. The four are implicated in a conspiracy to bomb a number of high-profile targets and tourist venues in Thailand including the embassies of the United States, United Kingdom, Israel, Singapore, and Australia.
In August, the King signed an emergency antiterrorist decree, giving the government powerful new legal tools to fight terrorism. There were no significant acts of terrorism in Thailand during 2003. The Thai Government’s effectiveness in precluding a terrorist incident during the APEC Summit in October was considered a major success both domestically and internationally.
Australia continued its strong counterterrorism stance in 2003, both domestically and abroad. Australia continues to contribute to the global war on terror in Afghanistan. Between September 2001 and June 2004, Australia expects to have contributed more than US $46 million in humanitarian and reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan. Australia has also made strong contributions to the US-led Coalition in Iraq, with more than 800 Australian Defence Force personnel in Iraq. Its commitment to Iraq’s stabilization and development continues across humanitarian, agricultural, and other economic sectors.
Canberra further improved its domestic counterterrorism arrangements and consultative mechanisms in 2003. The National Counterterrorism Committee completed a National Counterterrorism Plan in June. The Government also created a National Security Hotline, conducted a public campaign to ensure that Australians remain alert to the possible threat of terrorism, and formed the Business-Government Task Force on Critical Infrastructure. A National Security Division was established in the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet to ensure a continued high level of coordination and reinforce a government-wide approach to terrorism and national security issues. Canberra also established the National Threat Assessment Centre to provide integrated assessment capability across the government.
In March, the Government created a position of Ambassador for Counterterrorism. Similar to the Coordinator for Counterterrorism in the United States, the Ambassador provides a focal point for coordinating, promoting, and intensifying Australia’s international counterterrorism efforts.
Underpinning Australia’s commitment to fighting terrorism is a detailed legislative response. In 2002, the Commonwealth Parliament created specific offenses for involvement in terrorist activities and terrorist organizations and designated 16 such terrorist groups as of December 2003. Parliament also provided additional powers to the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation in 2003.
The Parliament passed new measures in 2002 to deny terrorists the funds on which they rely, and during 2002 and 2003 specifically listed more than 400 terrorist-related individuals, entities, and organizations, including HAMAS and Hizballah. Australia has taken action to block transactions, accounts, and assets relating to persons or organizations identified as terrorists or the sponsors of terrorism, including those listed under US Executive Order 13224. Australia has a highly developed legal regime in place to combat terrorist financing. The Australian financial intelligence unit AUSTRAC has strengthened its network by signing a further ten Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) with other Financial Intelligence Units throughout the world in 2003, bringing the total to 24. AUSTRAC is also cooperating with the US counterpart, FinCEN, on financial intelligence.
Australia is helping countries in the Asia-Pacific region build their capacity to combat terrorism in areas such as law enforcement, border management, transportation security, intelligence, antiterrorist financing, and the development of legal regimes. In July, Prime Minister Howard announced a three-year $3.6 million package with the Philippines to support the building of counterterrorism capacity. Australia’s $7.2 million counterterrorism package to Indonesia is in the second of its four years. Australia spent $5.38 million specifically on building counterterrorism capacity throughout the entire Asia-Pacific region and expects to spend an additional $6.12 million this year.
Australia has broadened its network of bilateral counterterrorism arrangements in Southeast Asia, signing MOUs on cooperation to combat international terrorism with the Philippines, Fiji, Cambodia, East Timor, and India during 2003, bringing Australia’s network of MOUs to eight. These MOUs are umbrella arrangements that set out a framework for bilateral cooperation in law enforcement, defense, intelligence, customs, and immigration.
The MOU with the Philippines facilitated cooperation between the Australian Federal Police and the Philippine National Police, including in the investigation of the bombing in Davao City in the southern Philippines in March 2003, in which 17 were killed, including one US citizen. In Indonesia, the joint Australian and Indonesian police investigation into the Bali bombings in October 2002 that killed 202, including 88 Australians, is testimony to the successful combination of Australian and Indonesian investigative and forensic techniques — and a model for successful international cooperation to bring perpetrators of terrorism to justice. By November 2003, 36 suspects were in Indonesian custody. Among these, 29 had been convicted and an additional four were before the courts.
In the Pacific Islands, Australia has continued working with the region’s key political body — the Pacific Islands Forum — and with other regional entities such as the South Pacific Chiefs of Police Conference, the Oceania Customs Organization, and the Pacific Immigration Directors Conference, to reduce the possibility of countries in the region being exploited by terrorists and to combat organized crime.
The APEC Leaders’ Summit in 2003 endorsed two Australian counterterrorism-related initiatives: advance passenger information systems and development of a regional alert system. Australia is working hard in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Regional Forum to focus on the very real danger of terrorism and ways to counter it. In June 2003, Australia and Singapore co-hosted a seminar on managing the consequences of a major terrorist attack, which focused on practical measures that governments can take to recover from such an incident.
Australia is a party to 11 of the 12 international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism.
Burma maintained its solid position against international terrorism in 2003. The regime previously enacted, but has not yet implemented, an anti-money laundering law that could help block terrorist assets. The military government is fighting several low-intensity conflicts against ethnic insurgents. At least one of these groups is alleged to have ties to South Asian terrorist networks.
The junta has occasionally sought to portray insurgent attacks against infrastructure such as bridges and pipelines as terrorism, but there were no known acts of international terrorism during 2003. Dozens of improvised explosive devices exploded or were discovered in various locations throughout Burma in 2003. With the exception of two bombings of an oil pipeline claimed by the insurgent Karen National Union, there were no claims of responsibility for these acts. In March, two improvised explosive devices were found in Rangoon, one of which exploded and killed two municipal workers. The perpetrators’ identities and motives are unclear, but the junta arrested a number of anti-regime activists.
Burma is a party to seven of the 12 international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism and is a signatory to the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism.
In May, Cambodian authorities arrested one Egyptian, two Thais, and one Cambodian suspected of being members of JI. The Government stated publicly that the group was plotting to conduct terrorist attacks in Cambodia. The group had been operating out of an Islamic school run by the Saudi Arabia-based NGO, Umm al-Qura, on the outskirts of Phnom Penh. The school was allegedly being used as a front for channeling al-Qaida money into Cambodia from Saudi Arabia. In addition to the arrests of the four, who remain in custody awaiting trial, the Cambodian Government shut down two branches of the Umm al-Qura Islamic School and deported 28 foreign teachers and their dependents.
In November, Cambodian authorities arrested seven members of the Cambodian Freedom Fighters, an antigovernment group, that was reportedly planning a terrorist attack in the southwestern town of Koh Kong. The suspects remain in custody while the government completes its investigation.
Although there were no acts of international terrorism on Cambodian soil in 2003, Cambodia recognizes that it is not immune from the problem of international terrorism and understands that it needs to work actively to counter the threat. The information leading to the arrest of the suspected JI members in the Umm al-Qura Islamic School and subsequent knowledge that Indonesian JI terrorist leader Hambali resided temporarily in Cambodia have hardened Cambodia’s attitude.
Cambodia’s ability to independently investigate potential terrorist activities is limited by a lack of training and resources. In addition, Cambodia’s lack of comprehensive and effective domestic legislation to combat terrorism is a serious constraint on the Government’s ability to arrest and prosecute terrorists. To address these deficiencies, the Cambodian Government has requested international assistance to upgrade its counterterrorism capabilities. Beginning in 2003, the government made significant headway in instituting computerized border control systems at Phnom Penh’s international airport. The Cambodian Government has also cooperated fully with US requests to monitor terrorists and terrorists entities listed as supporters of terrorist financing.
Phnom Penh has been vocal in condemning terrorist acts. Foreign Minister Hor Namhong, for example, issued a strongly worded statement condemning the bombing attack in October 2002 in Bali, Indonesia. Cambodia has actively participated in international counterterrorism forums. As ASEAN Chair from July 2002 to June 2003, Cambodia took the lead in coordinating ASEAN statements on terrorism, such as the Joint ASEAN-EU Declaration on Cooperation to Combat Terrorism and the relevant text in the Chairman’s Statement of the Tenth ASEAN Regional Forum released in June.
Cambodia is a party to four of the 12 international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism and is a signatory to the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism.
China continues to take a clear stand against international terrorism and is broadly supportive of the global war on terror. Chinese officials at all levels regularly denounce terrorism, and China regularly participates in discussions of counterterrorism in both international and regional forums. For example, China actively participated in the SCO, assisting in the establishment of an SCO Counterterrorism Center in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, scheduled to begin operation in 2004, and engaging in SCO joint counterterrorism exercises in Kazakhstan and Xinjiang Province in August 2003.
China is supportive of diplomatic actions and efforts to block and freeze terrorist assets. China treats designations of terrorists under US Executive Order 13224 on an equal basis with those designated by the United Nations UNSCR 1267 Sanctions Committee. The United States and China hold regular counterterrorism consultations and expert-level consultations on curbing terrorist financing. The People’s Bank of China is in the process of establishing an Anti-Money Laundering Bureau, which will include a Terrorist Finance Investigative Department.
China displays a general willingness to cooperate with international terrorism investigations. Chinese authorities actively participated in the investigation of the case of the “Portland Six” — a group in Portland, Oregon, indicted on terrorism charges in October 2002 — providing hotel records and other information that proved instrumental in obtaining guilty pleas from the defendants.
There were no acts of international terrorism committed in China in 2003. There were several reports, however, of bombings and bomb threats in various parts of China, although it is unclear whether these were politically motivated acts of terrorism or criminal attacks. Chinese authorities assert that terrorists, primarily based in Xinjiang Province, continue to operate on Chinese territory. On 15 December, for example, China’s Ministry of Public Security (MPS) issued a list of “East Turkestan” groups and individuals that the Chinese Government considers to be terrorist entities. The list includes four groups: the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM), the East Turkestan Liberation Organization (better known as SHAT), the World Uighur Youth Congress, and the East Turkestan Information Center.
The list also specifically names 11 individuals as terrorists, including the leaders of each of the above groups. The MPS stated that it has incontrovertible evidence that each listed group has organized and executed specific terrorist acts in Xinjiang and that these groups are all linked to each other and the al-Qaida network. Following the release of the list, the Chinese Government called for international assistance in China’s fight against these organizations and individuals, requesting that the assets of the groups be frozen, that the organizations be outlawed, and that countries stop supporting and financing them. Beijing also asked the international community to assist in the investigation, apprehension, and repatriation of the designated individuals. The US Department of State has designated the ETIM as part of the Department of State’s Terrorist Exclusion List and under Executive Order 13224 but has not designated the other three groups under US law.
China is a party to 11 of the 12 international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism and is a signatory to the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism.
Indonesia continued its firm public stance against terrorism in 2003. The terrorist bombings in Bali on 12 October 2002 that killed 202 — mostly foreign tourists — and the bombing of the J.W. Marriott Hotel in Jakarta on 5 August 2003 that killed 12 forced the Indonesian Government into action. The Government, led by the Indonesian National Police, has taken effective steps to counter the threat posed by the regional terrorist organization Jemaah Islamiya (JI), which has ties to al-Qaida. Indonesian police have arrested 109 suspected JI members — most in 2003 — including suspects in the Bali attacks, the Marriott attack, and other criminal acts linked to terrorism. Those arrested included numerous senior JI leaders, a number of regional and subregional commanders, most of the masterminds of the Bali attack, several key planners of the Marriott bombing, former instructors at JI training camps, and financiers of terrorist attacks.
In a case symptomatic of persistent Indonesian domestic sensitivities, political pressures, and institutional weaknesses, however, the Government made little effort to investigate the activities and affiliations of six students suspected of terrorist involvement, who were deported from Pakistan in early December 2003 and released two within days of their repatriation.
Indonesia, hampered by weak rule of law, a poorly regulated financial system, and serious internal coordination problems, has not yet frozen any terrorist assets. The Government, however, did enhance its legal framework in September by passing amendments to its anti-money laundering law, which strengthened the government’s legal authority to combat terrorist finance. Indonesia has also created a financial intelligence unit with US assistance.
In March, Indonesia adopted a comprehensive antiterrorism law, defining various acts of terror and providing police and prosecutors with broader powers to combat terrorism such as extended pretrial detention periods and the use of electronic evidence in court. The Government, however, has been unwilling to ban JI, saying the organization never formally applied for recognition and thus cannot be prohibited. The absence of such a prohibition has impeded police and prosecutors in arresting and trying suspected terrorists and will most likely further hamper prosecutors’ efforts to put JI leaders behind bars.
On 2 September, the Central Jakarta District Court convicted the spiritual leader of JI, Abu Bakar Bashir, on treason and immigration charges. The panel of judges stated in its decision that the prosecutors had presented suffi cient evidence to convince them of JI’s existence, its goal of overthrowing the Government of Indonesia, and Bashir’s involvement with the group. However, despite videoconference testimony from Bali bombers naming Bashir as the head of JI, judges were not convinced of his leadership role and sentenced him to only four years in prison. Both Bashir and the prosecution appealed the decision. In November, the court reduced Bashir’s sentence to three years, reversing the treason charge but upholding his conviction for document fraud and immigration violations.
The Indonesian judicial system undertook the trials of approximately 63 terror suspects in 2003, including 17 for involvement in the bombing of a McDonald’s restaurant and a car showroom in Makassar, South Sulawesi, in December 2002; as well as 46 members of JI for involvement in the church bombings on Christmas Eve 2000, the bombing of the Philippine Ambassador’s residence in Jakarta in August 2000, and the Bali and Marriott Hotel bombings. As of 1 December 2003, Indonesian courts had convicted a total of 50 terror suspects and acquitted two. Thirty-nine of these convictions were of suspects involved in the Bali bombings on 12 October 2002. Three key planners — Amrozi bin Nurhasyim, Abdul Ghoni (a.k.a. Mukhlas), and Abdul Aziz (a.k.a. Imam Samudra — were all sentenced to death. Many others were given life in prison.
The numerous convictions and tough sentences handed down by the courts are a reflection of the Government’s seriousness in combating terrorism and its commitment to bring to justice those implicated in terrorist attacks in Indonesia. Fifteen terrorist trials remain under way, and many suspects await trial. At year’s end, Indonesian An Indonesian Muslim woman grieves at a family gathering for victims of the J.W. Marriott Hotel bombing while holding her nephew, whose father was killed in the attack on 5 August 2003.
Police continued steadily to arrest suspected JI members and were devoting considerable resources to hunting JI bombmakers Azahari Hussein and Noordin Mat Top, as well as several other known fugitives.
Indonesia is a party to four of the 12 international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism and is a signatory to two additional conventions, including the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism.
Japan continued its strong counterterrorism stance in 2003. Prime Minister Koizumi and numerous other senior officials have publicly declared their firm commitment to stand by the United States to combat terrorism over the long term. Japan’s significant rear-area support to Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan and strong statement of support for US-led military action in Iraq bear out this commitment. In July 2003, the Japanese Diet passed the Iraq Reconstruction Assistance Law, which includes provision for dispatching the Japan Self-Defense Forces to Iraq to assist in reconstruction and humanitarian efforts. In October 2003, the Japanese Diet approved a two-year extension of the Anti-Terrorism Special Measures Law and another six-month basic plan, which stipulate the activities that the Japan Self- Defense Forces may perform in support of OEF. Japan provides approximately 40 percent of the fuel used by US naval forces engaged in OEF. Japan Air Self-Defense Force planes continued to provide transportation for US forces.
Japan actively participates in strengthening counterterrorism measures in various international and regional forums. In August 2003, Japan signed a mutual legal assistance treaty with the United States and plans to submit the treaty to the Diet for ratification in 2004. Once ratified, it will make cooperation in investigations and prosecution of terrorists easier. To help stem the flow of terrorist financing to al-Qaida and the Taliban, Japan designated under its asset-freezing program all entities and individuals included on the UN 1267 Sanctions Committee’s consolidated list. Tokyo announced in October 2003 that Japan will join the Advanced Passenger Information System, obliging Japanese officials to share information about departing international passengers with other participating countries, including the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.
Japan continues to make valuable contributions to building counterterrorism capacity among Asian countries. Japanese officials have led seminars on immigration control, aviation security, customs cooperation, export control, law enforcement, and terrorist financing. Japanese National Police Agency officials were dispatched to assist the Indonesian Police investigation following the Marriott Hotel bombing in Jakarta in August 2003. Japan had also dispatched criminal investigators to Indonesia in the wake of the terrorist attacks in Bali in October 2002. In addition, Japan is providing technical assistance to Southeast Asian countries working to create a system for monitoring terrorist financing. For example, Japan sponsored a seminar on establishing financial intelligence units for Southeast Asian countries in October 2003.
There were no incidents of international terrorism in Japan during 2003. Trials continue of members of the Aum Shinrikyo Group, a US-designated foreign terrorist organization, accused of perpetrating the sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway system in 1995. The prosecution has requested the death penalty for Aum Shrinrikyo leader Matsumoto, and a ruling is expected in early 2004. Three suspects in the incident in 1995 remain at large. The Public Security Intelligence Agency is continuing its surveillance of the group through 2005, as authorized by the Public Security Commission in December 2002.
Japan is a party to all 12 international terrorism conventions and protocols relating to terrorism.
The Government of Laos has continued to support the global war on terrorism. Although the Government’s intentions regarding counterterrorism are positive, implementation of multilateral agreements is hampered by weak enforcement procedures and lack of control of areas outside the capital. The Government cooperated bilaterally on counterterrorism issues with the United States and other nations and multilaterally with the United Nations and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
Since Laos lacks distinct counterterrorism laws, the Office of the Prosecutor General plans to introduce amendments to existing criminal law, under which acts of terrorism fall, to make more explicit the descriptions of and punishments for terrorism-related crimes. In September, Lao courts sentenced two active-duty soldiers to life imprisonment for orchestrating a series of bombings in Vientiane in 2000 and 2002. Laos has continued to seek the extradition of 17 Lao citizens from Thailand suspected of involvement in an armed attack against a Lao customs checkpoint in the southern part of the country in July 2000. Laos suffered many incidents of domestic terrorism in 2003, carried out by groups of unknown identity opposed to the Lao Government. Some of these terrorist incidents were ambush-style attacks against buses and private vehicles, resulting in the deaths of 34 civilians, and others targeted government officials, killing three Lao officials. A group calling itself the Free Democratic People’s Government of Laos claimed credit for at least one in a series of bombings in the latter half of the year that killed one person and injured several more.
The Bank of Laos continued to search government and commercial bank holdings for possible terrorist assets, as identified by US-provided lists of terrorist organizations and individuals, and has issued freeze orders for assets of organizations and individuals named on these lists. The Bank, however, had yet to take steps to report on Government compliance with UNSCR 1373 or to require the freezing of the assets of individuals and entities associated with Usama Bin Ladin, members of al-Qaida, and members of the Taliban as included on the UNSCR 1267 Sanctions Committee’s consolidated list, as required by mandatory provisions of UN Security Council resolutions.
Laos is a party to seven of the 12 international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism but has not yet become a party to the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism.
On 1 July, Malaysia established a Southeast Asia Regional Center for Counterterrorism (SEARCCT). SEARCCT is expected to focus on regional training, information sharing, and public awareness campaigns. In August, SEARCCT hosted a training program sponsored by the US Treasury’s financial intelligence unit, FinCEN, and Malaysia’s Central Bank (Bank Negara) on combating terrorist financing. Other nations, including the United Kingdom, Germany, and Australia, are also expected to provide trainers and training materials to the center. Malaysia assisted Indonesian efforts to prosecute terrorist suspects by making video testimony from suspects in Malaysian custody available to Indonesian prosecutors.
Malaysia has detained more than 100 suspected terrorists under the Internal Security Act (ISA) since May 2001. Malaysia issued 10 and renewed 11 two-year detention orders for terrorist suspects in 2003. On 10 November, 13 Malaysian terrorist suspects were held under 60-day detention orders upon their return from Pakistani custody. Eight of these suspects have been released. In August, the Malaysian Government chose not to renew a detention order for Muhammad Iqbal (a.k.a. Abu Jibril) an Indonesian national and terrorist suspect, seeking instead to deport him to Indonesia. At years’ end, Iqbal remained in Malaysian custody.
Malaysia has responded quickly to UN Security Council requirements to prohibit terrorist financing and freeze the accounts of named entities. In November, Malaysia’s Parliament amended its antimoney laundering legislation of 2001 to include terrorist activity as a predicate offense. Parliament also amended the penal and criminal procedure codes to increase penalties for terrorist acts, allow for the prosecution of individuals who provide material support for terrorists, expand the use of wiretaps and other surveillance of terrorist suspects, and permit video testimony in terrorist cases.
On 24 September, Malaysia deposited the instruments of ratification for two international antiterrorism conventions: the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings and the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons. Malaysia is a party to three additional international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism and is a signatory to the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation. It has not yet become a party to the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism.
In March, Malaysian police announced the discovery of four tons of explosive ammonium nitrate fertilizer often used in truck bombs. According to press reports, the ammonium nitrate had been purchased in September 2000 by ex-Army captain and scientist, Yazid Sufaat, who is currently under ISA detention for allegedly being involved in JI activities. The chemicals were to have been used by JI in Singapore to make truck bombs to attack foreign embassies and other Western targets.
New Zealand appointed its first Ambassador for Counterterrorism in September to consolidate and build upon the measures taken since the attacks of September 11 and to ensure New Zealand has a stronger capacity to develop and implement policies on global terrorism and related security issues. In October, the New Zealand Parliament passed new antiterrorism laws that will allow the Government to investigate, detect, and prosecute terrorist activities more effectively. The laws create new offenses to address terrorist threats, empower the New Zealand Police and Customs Officials to investigate and prosecute those offenses, and bring New Zealand into full compliance with its UN obligations.
New Zealand continues to support Operation Enduring Freedom. It deployed troops to Iraq and Afghanistan to participate in the reconstruction efforts and pledged to provide humanitarian aid, as well as keeping its previous commitment of sending a frigate and a P-3 Orion to the region.
New Zealand is a party to 11 of the 12 international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism and is a signatory to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials.
The Philippines continues to be an outspoken supporter of the global Coalition against terrorism and has been swift and direct in condemnation of terrorist acts, both domestic and international.
The Philippines was the victim of a number of terrorist attacks in 2003, including the car-bomb attack on 21 February adjacent to a military airfield in Cotobato, on the southern island of Mindanao; the bombing on 4 March at the International Airport in Davao, Mindanao, that killed 17 (including one US citizen); the Sasa Wharf bombing on 2 April also in Davao that killed 15; a series of bombings in Koronadal City, Mindanao, which took more than 15 civilian lives; as well as a number of kidnappings-for-ransom operations.
The Philippines faces threats from internal terrorism on several fronts. The United States, for example, has listed four indigenous groups as Foreign Terrorist Organizations — the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG), the Communist Party of the Philippines/New People’s Army, Alex Boncayo Brigade, and the Pentagon Gang.
In her speech to the UN General Assembly in September, Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo noted that growing international coordination and cooperation is countering the global threat of terrorism. She further emphasized that the Philippines is working with other heads of state to ensure continued cooperation in the battle to rid Southeast Asia of the terrorist threat. During the ASEAN post-ministerial conference held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, in June, Philippine Foreign Secretary Ople expressed the desire of ASEAN to reinforce collaboration with its dialogue partners, highlighting the area’s capacity building and training in law enforcement.
The Government of the Philippines created a multiagency counterterrorism task force chaired by the National Security Advisor and consisting of officials from 34 Philippine Government agencies representing the security, economic, and social components essential for an effective counterterrorism strategy. In October, President Arroyo appointed former Defense Secretary Angelo Reyes to a newly created cabinet-level position, Ambassador-at-Large for Counterterrorism. The Philippines also established a task force on protection of critical infrastructure chaired by the Undersecretary of the Presidential Office of Special Concerns.
Philippine authorities made several significant arrests of suspected terrorists in 2003. In May, security forces arrested Saifullah Yunos (a.k.a. Muklis Yunos), a subcommander of the separatist MILF. During his arraignment in July, Yunos entered a guilty plea for his involvement in the explosion on a Manila commuter train on 30 December 2000 that killed 22 people. In October, JI operative Taufek Refke was arrested at a JI safehouse in Cotabato City, on the southern island of Mindanao. Police reportedly recovered manuals on bombmaking and chemical-biological warfare. In December, Philippine Armed Forces captured ASG commander Ghalib Andang (a.k.a. “Commander Robot”) on the southern island of Jolo. Andang was the leader of one of the main ASG factions and is responsible for numerous kidnappings and bombings during the last decade, including the kidnapping in April 2000 of Western tourists from the Malaysian resort of Sipadan.
In February, the Philippine Armed Forces overran a base area of the separatist MILF near the town of Pikit on the southern island of Mindanao. Manila claimed that criminals, including the notorious Pentagon Gang, found refuge and protection in the area. Thousands of civilians were displaced as a result of the ensuing days of fighting.
In August, the Philippines sent 96 members of the Philippine Humanitarian Contingent to Iraq to assist in Coalition reconstruction efforts. Philippine officials remained steadfast in word and deed to contribute troops—even in the wake of the terrorist bombing of the UN compound in Baghdad that same week that killed two of their countrymen. If additional funding is available, Manila plans to send 79 additional members and extend the contingent’s stay longer than the planned six months.
Despite its overall positive record, the Philippines continues to face setbacks and challenges on the counterterrorism front. In July, senior Indonesian JI operative Fathur Rahman al-Ghozi escaped from Philippine National Police headquarters in Manila along with two suspected ASG members, Omar Opik Lasal and Abdulmukim “Mukim” Idris. Originally detained in the Philippines in January 2002, al-Ghozi was serving a 17-year prison sentence. Al-Ghozi was eventually killed in a shootout with Philippine security forces in North Cotabato Province on Mindanao on 12 October. Philippine Armed Forces shot and killed Idris on 7 August in Lanao del Norte Province on Mindanao and captured Lasal on 7 October in North Cotabato Province in Mindanao.
For the second straight year, the Philippines failed to enact new antiterrorism legislation in 2003. Major evidentiary and procedural obstacles in the Philippines hinder the building of effective terrorism cases, such as the absence of a law defining and codifying terrorist acts and restrictions on gathering of evidence. Generic problems in the law enforcement and criminal justice systems also hamper bringing terrorists to justice in the Philippines. Among them: low morale, inadequate salaries, recruitment and retention difficulties, and lack of cooperation between police and prosecutors.
Tracking terrorist financing continues to pose a problem to prosecuting cases. Poor communication between Philippine law enforcement agencies and the Anti-Money Laundering Council (AMLC) remains an impediment to effective implementation of the Anti-Money Laundering Act amended in March 2003. The amendments to the Act granted Central Bank personnel unfettered access to deposit accounts. However, the Central Bank and the AMLC face logistic challenges due to the lack of information technology platforms to collect and process covered transaction reports. Although the amendments addressed international Financial Action Task Force (FATF) concerns about the Philippines legal and regulatory framework, the Philippines remains on the FATF’s list of noncooperating countries and territories (NCCT). Removal from the NCCT list awaits the adoption of an anti-money laundering implementation plan and corresponding actions.
In October, the Philippine Government ratified the remaining six of the 12 international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism.
Singapore continued its strong public and private opposition to terrorism and maintained vigorous counterterrorism action in bilateral and multilateral contexts. There were no acts of international or domestic terrorism in Singapore in 2003, although authorities continued their investigation and detentions of members of the JI Southeast Asian regional terrorist network, which had plotted to carry out attacks in Singapore in the past.
Singapore did not announce any new domestic terrorist arrests in 2003, although four of its citizens who are terrorist suspects — believed to be members of JI — were repatriated. All four men are being held under the Internal Security Act, bringing the total number of JI-related detainees to 35. Singapore officials stated publicly that while JI continues to pose a threat in the rest of the region, in Singapore, the JI threat has been significantly minimized since Singapore is believed to have been successful in identifying and breaking up the JI operational cells that had been active in the city-state.
During 2003, Singapore continued its cooperation with a variety of governments, including the United States, to investigate terrorist groups, especially JI, through both intelligence and law enforcement channels. Singapore provided Thailand information that ultimately led to the arrest in May of a Singaporean JI member in Thailand, Arifin bin Ali. As a result of that investigation, Thai authorities also arrested several Thai citizens believed to be members of JI. Singapore authorities later stated that they had conveyed to Thailand information from Arifin that the JI group intended to blow up five embassies in Bangkok, including the US Embassy.
Singapore also provided key information that helped Thailand track down and arrest top JI leader Hambali in August. In February, a tipoff from Singapore led to the arrest of Singapore citizen and alleged leader of JI in Singapore, Mas Selamat Kastari, on the Indonesian island of Batam, near Singapore. Kasteri is alleged to have planned to hijack a plane and crash it into Singapore’s Changi Airport. Singapore also facilitated video testimony of three of its ISA detainees in the Indonesian trial of JI spiritual leader Abu Bakar Bashir in August. Singapore designated both the United States and the United Kingdom in May as “prescribed” countries under the terrorist financing law of 2002. This step allows Singapore to respond to requests for information on terrorist financing.
Singapore’s new export-control law, which went into effect on 1 January, represents a major step forward. Though largely aimed at preventing proliferation of weapons-of-mass-destruction (WMD) goods to governments, the new framework may also assist in preventing such materials from fallings into the hands of terrorists. In March, Singapore became the first port in Asia to begin operations under the US Container Security Initiative. Singapore officials have expressed strong concern about maritime security in nearby waters, especially the Strait of Malacca. These concerns include terrorist threats as well as pirate and other criminal attacks. Singapore has stepped up security within its own waters and also its efforts to work with other countries.
Singapore actively participated in counterterrorism efforts through various international forums, including the ASEAN Regional Forum in June, the APEC Leaders Summit in October, and the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in December. In addition, Singapore hosted and co-sponsored with the United States a January workshop on measures to cut off terrorist financing. Attendees at the workshop included representatives of ASEAN states and Pacific Island Forum members, the UN Counterterrorism Committee, the FATF, and the Asia-Pacific Group on Money Laundering. During 2003, Singapore ratified the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism and the Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection. In November, Singapore passed legislation to enable it to implement the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation; at year’s end, it had not signed the convention.
Singapore’s port and air bases continued to be available to transiting military forces engaged in the global war on terrorism, including those of the United States. In November, a Singapore Landing Ship Tank began a deployment to assist Coalition efforts in Iraq; Singapore has also pledged a C-130. During President Bush’s October visit, Singapore and the United States announced plans to conclude a “Strategic Framework Agreement” on defense and security. In addition to military-to-military cooperation, the statement noted that the agreement was expected to increase cooperation against terrorism and proliferation.
Singapore is a party to six of the 12 international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism.
Taiwan has supported the global war on terrorism and continues to take steps to improve its counterterrorism laws and regulations, port and container security, and terrorist finance legislation. At a ministerial meeting in June 2003 of the Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum, Taiwan’s Economic Minister voiced Taiwan’s strong support for counterterrorism efforts in the Asia-Pacific region, which focused on plans to enhance security measures in airplanes, airports, ships, and harbors.
In October, the Cabinet approved a draft law that would mandate the formation of a task force to coordinate terrorism prevention measures and provide an integrated legal framework for counterterrorism efforts. The proposed legislation also would grant special powers for telecommunication surveillance, provide measures to check the identity of terrorists, inspect transportation equipment, and confiscate the property or assets of suspected terrorists.
The United States and Taiwan continued negotiations on the Department of Homeland Security’s Container Security Initiative, which aims to protect containerized shipping from exploitation by terrorists. Taiwan operates one of the busiest container ports in the world and has been identified by Homeland Security as one of the top 20 foreign ports for implementation of the initiative.
Taiwan also has been working to identify fi nancial assets controlled or utilized by international terrorists, but to date, no terrorist assets have been located in Taiwan.
Thailand’s domestic and international counterterrorism efforts, which were bolstered in the wake of the deadly bombing in Bali, Indonesia, in October 2002, intensified during 2003. Prime Minster Thaksin Shinawatra publicly expressed the will of the Royal Thai Government to cooperate closely with the United States and other nations in fighting the global war on terror. In August, Thai authorities captured top JI leader with close ties to al-Qaida, Nurjaman Riduan bin Isomuddin (a.k.a. Hambali) in Ayutthaya, Thailand. Hambali’s capture serves as a major blow to both JI and al-Qaida and represents a significant victory in the war on global terror.
In June and July, Thai authorities in southern Thailand arrested four men suspected of being either JI supporters or operatives. The four are implicated in a conspiracy to bomb a number of high-profile targets and tourist venues in Thailand, including the Embassies of Australia, Israel, Singapore, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Court hearings for the four began in November, although a decision is not expected until 2004.
In August, the King signed an emergency antiterrorist decree, giving the Government powerful new legal tools to fight terrorism. These measures establish the criminal offense of terrorism in the penal code and make that offense a predicate under the Anti-Money Laundering Act. The executive decree was approved after nearly two years of parliamentary consideration. Although existing legislation does not cover terrorist financing, Thailand is planning to expand its Anti- Money Laundering Act to include terrorism. The Government and Thailand’s central bank continued to cooperate closely with the United States on reviewing and disseminating lists of persons blocked under US Executive Order 13224. To date, Thailand has not identified any entities on the list, and no assets have been blocked or frozen.
As Thailand continues to expand its government-to government cooperation with other ASEAN states, it is becoming more difficult for members of regional terrorist organizations to move from country to country while evading national law enforcement agencies. Thailand is a participant in the new Southeast Asia Center for Counterterrorism based in Malaysia. As host of the APEC Leader’s Summit in October 2003, Thailand was instrumental in persuading APEC members to adopt the “Bangkok Goals,” which place security concerns on an equal footing with the economic objectives that previously dominated this forum.
Throughout most of 2003, Thailand provided 130 military engineers and medical personnel to Bagram, Afghanistan, in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Thailand has also dispatched engineers to Iraq to help with reconstruction tasks there.
Thailand is a major recipient of the US Anti-Terrorism Assistance program, with numerous Thai police and security officials participating in US-sponsored training courses since 1995. Thailand is also working closely with the United States to enhance the security of its borders by upgrading to more effective, state-of-the-art controls.
There were no significant acts of terrorism in Thailand during 2003. The Thai Government’s effectiveness in precluding a terrorist incident during the APEC Summit in October was considered a major success both domestically and internationally.
Thailand is a party to four of the 12 international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism and is a signatory to the Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism.
THE WHOLE WORLD KNEW HOW BRUTAL AND SADISTIC JAVANESE HISTORY BACK GROUND .from the early history untill to day we can still find the javanese hasnt chaged.Batak people Bow to the javanese too..
INDONESIA: 1965-1966 Massacre: Four Decades of Injustice
Posted on 2006-01-30
Remembering the Communist Party (PKI) in the post Suharto era.
Under General Suharto, after 1984, every September 30th citizens, particularly schoolchildren, were obliged to watch Arifin C Noor’s propaganda film Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI (The Treason of the September 30 Movement and the Indonesian Communist Party), which portrayed the events of 1965, including the murders of six Indonesian Army generals on the night of the 30th, according to the official view, that is, that the murders constituted an attempt by the Communist Party to overthrow the government.
Pengkhianatan G30S PKI
The Executive Director of the Institute for Public Studies (IPS), Fadli Zon, however complains that these days the traditional view of events is being attacked from all sides and ordinary people are becoming confused.
The efforts to change the story of G30S/PKI and to make the PKI look like they were the victims and not the instigators keeps going on and is getting more and more intense.
There were now at least five versions of the events of 1965, he said, some of which blamed the PKI for part involvement in a coup attempt, some exonerated the PKI entirely, and some blamed the CIA and MI6.
Some of these alternative views managed to find their way into school history text books in 2004, which were later banned, and some of them then confiscated and publicly burned, as the authorities attempted to re-assert the primacy of the orthodox view of history.
Fadli said the aim of the PKI was always to establish a dictatorship of the proletariat and they had attempted to do so three times, in 1926, 1948, and then 1965. 
Akhyar, a resident of Kanigoro village in Kediri, remembers how on 19th January 1965 thousands of Communist Party members attacked a meeting of the Indonesian Islamic Students association, (PII, Pelajar Islam Indonesia) being held in a mosque in the village. Some of the students were tortured and killed, he said.
Akhyar says however that after the events of September 30th local people had their revenge on the communists, and Kanigoro became a centre of anti-communist activity, with the bodies of murdered communists being buried in a mass grave, today called “Makam Parik”. 
Madiun, like Kediri, was once known as a stronghold of the Communist Party, but the deputy mayor of the regency, Gandhi Yunita, said on 1st October, Pancasila Day, that he hoped this stigma had finally been erased.
Gandhi said that in the 1940’s the PKI moved its base from Solo to Madiun and in 1948 staged a rebellion in the town, led by Amir Muso, in an attempt to establish a Peoples’ Republic. In the village of Kresek in September 1948 Gandhi says communists murdered many clerics, policemen, teachers, health workers, and journalists, before their rebellion was crushed by the Siliwangi division of the Army. 
Even to this day the people of Madiun have not gotten over the psychological trauma of the PKI’s atrocities.
33 Comments on “G30S PKI”
- Andrew Says:
October 6th, 2007 at 3:52 am Millions of people disappeared following the G30S incident – allegedly murdered by the ORBA regime — is that fact or fiction? If that is fiction, then the horrible story of G30S PKI may just be another tale.
In politics, right or wrong depends on which side you are on.
Morality takes a backseat. Honesty has a new name.
- Sylvester Says:
October 6th, 2007 at 6:59 am Yup Andrew. Indonesia was a battleground for the US/NATO vs China/Soviet Union in the 60s.
The US won it and with suharto’s help, took many indo natural resources afterwards.
- The Righteous Dude Says:
October 6th, 2007 at 11:09 am
Under General Suharto, after 1984, every September 30th citizens, particularly schoolchildren, were obliged to watch Arifin C Noor’s propaganda film Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI (The Treason of the September 30 Movement and the Indonesian Communist Party), which portrayed the events of 1965, including the murders of six Indonesian Army generals on the night of the 30th, according to the official view, that is, that the murders constituted an attempt by the Communist Party to overthrow the government.
They also banned “The Year of Living Dangerously”, the 1983 Peter Weir film with Mel Gibson and Sigourney Weaver:
persumably becaused it dared to challenge the official version of history, and to say some less than heroic things about Sukarno and the Indonesian military. It was allowed to be screened at Jakarta International Film Festival in 2000 under President Wahid, and was shown on Metro TV – minus a few scenes – in 2004.
- Colson Says:
October 6th, 2007 at 2:05 pm To learn about the truth of 1965 it seems to me to be worthwhile to read the entries of 30.9, 26.9 and 6.9 at http://www.overseasthinktankforindonesia.com/
To come to terms with the crimes against humanity by Suharto and his gang, Indonesia should recognize the facts and should follow the lead of South Africa: the culprits who are still alive, should be tried by some tribunal of reconciliation.
- Sputjam Says:
October 6th, 2007 at 9:21 pm Those cold war days.
US and Soviets/china used remotes in third world country for domination.
It was a fight between two systems and the battlefield stretched far and wide, from central america to South East asia.
In Vietnam alone more than a million died, including 50000 american GIs.
These 2 ideologies are no different from religious ideologies. since the fall of the soviets, it is the islamic ideology that is fighting the US, each convinced their system is better than the other.
A day will come when all men will see the futility in ideologies. Every person should impose a self discipline to honesty, love and refrain from lewdness, evil and profiteering/greed.
- Beni Bevly Says:
October 9th, 2007 at 1:00 am There is another movie shows how 30th September Movement and afterwards happened in Indonesia. The title of the movie is “Shadow Play” and here is the link http://www.thirteen.org/shadowplay/index.html .
- Ross Says:
October 11th, 2007 at 9:03 pm Sputjam is surely wrong to equate democracy with other ideologies, as if they are commercial brands of toothbrush, equally useful.
Communism, like its sister Nazism, was a homicidal dementia, which still has. sadly, many defenders even outside the remaining slave states where it holds sway. You can spot them by their almost invariable waffling when asked to condemn the marxist evil, always rubbishing on about ’social progress’ ( i.e. an irreligious anti-national ruling class replacing either free elections or a religious and patriotic ruling class), or often they give themselves away with open lies about Cuba’s great health services – which are of course reserved for Castor’s clique and foreign freedom-haters like Michael Moore.
As for Islamist ideology, not to be confused with Islam as a religion, then we see what it means to impose on all nations – death to adulterers apostates, brutal floggings of kids and working men who dare to cuddle lovers or play cards, and banning mixed marriages.
Let’s not kid ourselves. America’s way of life, and the West’s in general, has in the past been infinitely superior to any other system, and those non-West lands that have adopted it, South Korea, Free China, Japan, are much better off than any of their neighbours.
As the Indonesians mentioned above clearly know, the PKI was a malignant cancer, just as any Communist party is, a current example being that in little Nepal. There the mainstream parties made the grave error of treating reds as normal politicians, despite their long record of terrorism. Now those Nepalese reds have realised they won’t win elections, so they have pulled out of the deal.
They should be taken on and taken out. Like the PKI, who were excised and a good thing too.
- Oigal Says:
October 13th, 2007 at 1:38 pm Still at it hey Ross,you blood thirsty old facist! Cute words “who were excised and a good thing too” as if we are talking about like banning a political party or something. Too bad they also mean that hundreds of thousands of barely literate, village people were slaughtered by roving gangs of thugs and their children’s children are still being harrassed today (of course, many of those slaughtered weren’t even “token” communists).
Tell us Ross how many women and children had to die before the end didn’t justify the means anymore.
As for Nepal ..yea far better they revert to the old Monarchy, dang Serf’s getting above their station. Or are you really going to pretend that Nepal was/is a just and fair democracy?
- Sputjam Says:
October 15th, 2007 at 10:20 pm I did not condemn democracy. If US is referred to, it meant capitalism. China embraced capitalism before England was formed, never mind the US.
Capitalism flourished when a monetary unit was formed, making things easier to trade.
Democracy has its flaws. In the US, the native indians were denied the right to vote until too late.
If the voice of the majority is upheld, then what do the minorities do when they are subjected to unfair practices, such as in malaysia and singapore, or even in indonesia?
In a multiracial settings, I think the vote of the majority will marginalised the minorities. Democracy works in a single ethnic entity, not in multiracial settings.Much like to european union, only by consensus will the minority voices be heard.
The countries Ross mentioned as being successful have also eliminated religion from the government, as all government and mankind should, using common sense to promote good governance and a civil and caring society, and keeping the priests and dictators from enslaving the masses.
- Ross Says:
October 17th, 2007 at 10:48 pm Well, ‘bloodthirsty old fascist’ (get your spelling right) is a step up from ‘frog, goose and dinsaur,’ as I was previously abused. I guess moving into political terminology from zoological is progress of sorts.
Turning to serious commentators, Sputjam, I apologise if I misunderstood your views on America, and gladly accept your assurance that you believe in democracy.
Whilst the free parts of Korea and China, and also Japan have no state-established churches or faiths, they do have freedom of religion and I rather think they operate in accordance with the religous/moral beliefs of the bulk of their citizens (though I am open to correction on this -no expert on Korean religion, among other things)
As you say, the E.U. is incompatible with democracy, which Brits sense, and know from experience, hence their hostility towards it. ASEAN nations should beware siggestions that they imitate the Brussels Empire.
Returning to the lunatic lefty Ogle…
Nepalese politics may be worth arguing about, maybe, but the point I made was that the reds entered into a deal and left when they faced exposure to democratic elections. The other parties were, and are, unwilling to abolish the monarchy, wishing to transform their little nation into a constitutional kingdom, like Japan or Malaysia, which may not be perfect but are infinitely better and more free than any of Ogle’s pet tyrannies in Vietnam or Laos or Red China, which is what his ‘innocent’ PKI would have imposed on Indonesia. Yes, there were Indonesian peasants killed who shouldn’t have been, because they were conned by communist propaganda into PKI fronts. But the ‘intelligentsia’ knew very well what horrors lay in store if Adit and his comrades took power -why cry for them?
‘Bloodthirsty’ – you fellow-travellers never give up ignoring or making excuses (making omellettes, breaking eggs, etc) for the large and small holocausts in Thirties Ukraine and elsewhere or the Sachsenhausen and Buchenwald concentration camps (and I refer to the ones re-opened by Ogle’s Soviet ‘liberators’ in 1945 after the nazis had been evicted.)
- Oigal Says:
October 18th, 2007 at 10:50 am It is simply impossible you isn’t Ross. We have spoken about mis-direction and mis quoting before its dishonest and really a sad portrayal of a pint of view.
Now you have managed to jump around the globe and the era, but avoided the point ‘How many of those Indonesian peasants (such a yesterday term) had to be killed before the end did not justify the means anymore, a 100,000, 200,000 a million”?
Ogle’s pet tyrannies in Vietnam or Laos or Red China, or
his ‘innocent’ PKI
When did I say PKI was innocent??
Could there be a sillier statements. Just because someone does not think its ok write off millions of people to support a far right tyranny does not make then a far leftist nor a communist.
Here’s a tip Roscoe, just because some one finds your views on the world and your disregard of human life repugnant does not make them a leftist.
- Ross Says:
October 18th, 2007 at 5:30 pm Poor Wee Robbie Ogle!
I offer riposte to his ignorant observation on Nepal and he flies off the handle, waggling his ‘Third Grade Debater’s Handbook’ and weeping over my sins of ‘misdirection.’ Mind you, his reference to a ‘pint of view’ may indicate a less than sober appraisal of other people’s opinions.
Actually, this is a free forum and debate may go where it pleases, which makes its site much more interesting, but in any event, Oggly’s narrow focus is inherently misplaced, especially from a fellow-travelling lefty. (he is surely no righty!) because the marxist virus is a worldwide menace, and has been around for a long time. If we fail to put its Indonesian variant in a broad geo-political and historical context, we risk forgetting the nature and extent of its evil.
Check your TGDH ,Oggle, and seek help for your problem of ‘repetition.’ I said already that it was not right that unlettered peasants should have been murdered. I see no need to repeat it again.
Pity you don’t give a toss about the unlettered peasants murdered by Mao, Bela Kun, your dear old Uncle Joe and the others in your pantheon of dieties, not least the Kim Dynasty in North Korea, so admired by the PKI’s Aidit, who got what he deserved. Though of course your pink oggling heart is doubtless bleeding for him still.
- Janma Says:
October 18th, 2007 at 9:41 pm Ross, i think the communist threat is over… you can relax now…. the world has moved on.
Remember two wrongs don’t make a right, but three lefts do.
- Achmad Sudarsono Says:
October 18th, 2007 at 10:26 pm Ross,
Oigal’s not a lefty. Seriously. Even if he was, the chardonnay socialists weren’t great friends of Mao once they found out what he really did.
More to the point: the reds debate is over, pal. No-one, including the reds think Marxist-Leninism is a good way to run an economy anymore. You’re about 40 years out of date.
In terms of Indonesia, history’s being re-written because the G30-S-PKI as depicted in the movie was just bullshit. The truth is pretty ugly for the left. Peasants killed peasants, often over little more than an extra rice field they’d been arguing about for generations or because some neighbor got to marry the prettiest girl.
But we just don’t know what drove the whole thing. The answers are lost in the shadows of 1965. We can, however, find them, through the light of scholarship and debate. But yammering away at cobwebbed arguments, my friend, isn’t helping anything, anyone, and is no credit to the memory of those lost in the night.
- Sam Says:
October 18th, 2007 at 11:30 pm Has this Ross been like down a well for the past two decades?
I’d like to give him a news flash:
The Soviet Union no longer exists.
China is only really communist in name only.
Vietnam is opening up for trade.
Castro is literally on his last legs and will die soon as will communism on that crumbling island.
North Korea is an internationally recognized basket case which no country would like to emulate.
No one gives a shit about Nepal.
Better Ross finds some contemporary things to fear like radical Islam; for example.
- Ross Says:
October 19th, 2007 at 5:40 pm Well, three critics, but more articulate and infinitely less infantile than Ogle.
Okay, Sam, so you think communism is a dead duck. I wish it were truly plucked but if you look at Latin America, Chavez is coercing Venezuela down the Castro road to tyranny, and others may be close behind. Communism of course is economic garbage, but the despotic political core holds firm in all CP-run countries. Prisons for dissenters, no free unions, no opposition press or parties -it hasn’t changed essentially, still denies its subjects what we often take for granted.
Ogle doesn’t care about that, merely whines about the past, eager to have the PKI rats rehabilitated- that’s why I don’t let it drop, because Ogle’s type loves to paint vermin like the PKI as some kind of agrarian reformers- not so. They were vicious totalitarian hypocrites, like all CPs everywhere.
And yes, I see the menace of Islamist fanatics. But most everyone does, whereas uninformed people might think PKI deserved sympathy, if Comrade Ogleski were to have his white-washing way.
Achmad, and Jamma, you are too quick to count them out. There were thousands, millions of marxists around until the Berlin Wall fell- did they all just disintegrate? Universities were churning them out through the 60s and 70s and now those grads are the profs and professionals – of course some grew up, but a lot still evince every sign of ideological infection. Cultural marxist power-grabs would make a nice next topic!
- Achmad Sudarsono Says:
October 20th, 2007 at 12:18 pm Ross,
A better effort. And yes, since the Berlin wall fell, it’s been possible to be an intellectual Marxist. But as a way to run a society, it’s been discredited for a long, long time. Chavez’s antics are more populism than Marxism, who very few people have actually read, including you, my friend.
Marx’s analysis of globalization, written 150 years ago was prophetic, quoted by the likes of arch-liberal Thomas Friedman in the World Is Flat just last year. Modern neoclassical economics hasn’t matched his analysis of recession and depression. Above all, it’s very unlikely the red-guard thugs of the PKI would have understood it.
Pal, Oigal ain’t a communist. He ain’t. Oigal’s a gentleman skeptic and free thinker who’s sometimes conservative, sometimes liberal but never communist.
We don’t know what happened in 1965. The CIA was probably involved. Suharto probably re-wrote history. The PKI probably couldn’t been as bad. Alot of neighbours killed neighbours for sure. We just don’t know. The answers are lost in the night, but as mentioned previously, squeezing the episode into cold war rhetoric won’t shed any light or uncover the lost history.
- Achmad Sudarsono Says:
October 20th, 2007 at 12:19 pm Correction: above should’ve read PKI probably would’ve been as bad, or killed as many people.
- Pakmantri Says:
October 20th, 2007 at 2:00 pm Ha ha ha ………….. lol, rotf.
I could not believe I am cheering for pak Achmad Sudarsono!!! Go Achmad go ……
- Oigal Says:
October 21st, 2007 at 1:05 pm Truely scary, AS on my side, tis but weird world!
Now back to our neocon Ross. Sorry my spelling errors annoy you, wait …no I am not. Lucky I used “pint” instead of word litre as it is about 30 years to recent for you Rip Van Winkle.
the marxist virus is a worldwide menace
straight from the Salem Witch Trials in
Actually what is a greater menace, is fanatics like you who believe its ok to slaughter thousands because they don’t support those “ism” that those in power do
I do admire your squirming although how you equate todays Nepal into (the)
Indonesian variant in a broad geo-political and historical context
is feat that even David Blaine would be proud of. By the way the “pint” still stands if you are going to use Nepal as a example fo the red menace you really should be prepared to defend its alternative not duck away to Japan. Here’s a tip, stick with the Koreas, they make a far better (albeit hardly relevent as Nth Korea is a sick abberation of the norm) case for your dated debate.
You are of course correct that Communism leads to
Prisons for dissenters, no free unions, no opposition press or parties -it hasn’t changed essentially, still denies its subjects what we often take for granted.
how is that different from the world you so desire, you have already stated that it was only a “shame” that a few peasants got slaughtered in 1965. In fact could you not say the same existed in Indonesia after the PKI was routed and those couple of hundred thousand peasants were killed. “Prisons for dissenters, no free unions, no opposition press or parties” sounds awfully post 65 Indonesia to me or are you going to quote the free press of Nepal to me. Do we really want to go into all the other despots raised and supported in the fight against the red menace. If you travel too far to the left or right the results are the same ..always the same.
Been a bit busy today do feel free to spell check if it makes you feel warm and fuzzy inside.
- Ross Says:
October 21st, 2007 at 7:15 pm ‘few people have actually read…including you my friend..’ Achmad, you may have great self-perceived qualities but being a dukun ain’t one of them. Please don’t assume too much in your attempt at intellectual machtergreifung.
As a wise doctor studies disease, of course I studied marxism, to postgraduate level, though the mention of higher education will presumably provoke a resentful jibe from the Ogglet, who in turn obviously ain’t very well-travelled, as he’d know that pints are alive and well in the Mother Country.
The comparison with Nepal today and Indonesia pre-1965 is pretty obvious, collaboration in coalitions as the PKi had been operating under Sukarno, not that far different from the pretence of fair play and democratic discussion in Nepal, until the Reds sussed they were on a loser if free elections were held. Now they are doing their best to scupper things.
Poor Ogglet can’t get his head round the fact that we can talk to each other as liberals, conservatives, social democrats – but communists are a breed apart. Yes. they can see the light, become good citizens, but until that happens, they should be beyond the pale. Otherwise you just bring up another generation of gullible Ogglets who think reds are like normal folk. And whose literacy is such that they interpret ‘it’s a shame’ as ‘it’s okay’,
Sorry Achmad, I am prepared to listen to your arguments but not accept that such a sad little rude-boy as the Ogglet qualifies as a ‘gentleman.’ You degrade the word by bracketing it with his ‘name.’
- Achmad Sudarsono Says:
October 21st, 2007 at 8:15 pm Ross,
OK. Reading is different from understanding. Let’s not get waylaid into an arcane debate about what Marx really meant, but the fact is most people in academia don’t have either the technical knowledge or concentration to get through his economic arguments, which actually drew heavily on Adam Smith, believe it or not. But let’s take you on your word.
As a humble ukele player and pencak silat teacher, I don’t know what machtergreifung. means. Please explain.
Let’s cut to the chase:
Why are you picking on Oigal ? He’s really a pretty fair-minded and decent chap and seriously, is no communist.
Why are you whipping a dead horse (communism) ?
- Oigal Says:
October 22nd, 2007 at 10:32 am Ross makes a fine spokesman for the NEW (OLD?) Order, you don’t agree with my repression and summary imprisionments etc etc ergo you must be a far left communist!
Edgar Hoover..Where are you??
- Oigal Says:
October 22nd, 2007 at 10:34 am Oh…and Ross…temper temper now..
- Ross Says:
October 22nd, 2007 at 8:46 pm Seriously, Achmad, I do not pick on people, unless they are very infantile people who mix into adult debate. They should be seen and not heard if they cannot hold a steady discussion without the sort of tantrums evinced in the post just above this.
I do not let temper dictate my posts, but type them equably, addressing civilised critics in a civilised manner. However, I reserve the right to make exceptions of little reds like Ogglet, who first made my acquaintance with the greeting ’sac of pus’ in another thread. That was his sophisticated analysis of a theory supported by many historians, notably the Dutchman Dake, and which accords with all that’s known of communist practice everywhere.
I must express surprise at your claim that he is not a commie, or fellow-traveller, but then, as you say, ‘reading is different from understanding.’ I shall take you at your word also, and assume you read all his gunk yet did not see the cultural marxist undercurrents. (like his last throwaway phrase on J. Edgar Hoover- types like Ogglet usually parrot the Comintern smear about Hoover, regardless of the fact it was a figment of some NKVD agents’s imagination.)
- Achmad Sudarsono Says:
October 22nd, 2007 at 9:02 pm Ross,
Well, if you want get obsessed with a debate that’s over for the time being go ahead. No one will stop you. But Oigal works for some sort of mining, oil and gas company, in a sector which at the moment is run on very capitalist principles, so unless he’s a well-pumper or minesite satpam, which I doubt, he’s probably in favour of the system that rewards him well – capitalism.
- Sputjam Says:
October 22nd, 2007 at 11:00 pm Communism activities in asia was backed by china. It was succesful in vietnam, as it has a very sizeable chinese population, and most chinese merely folllow the ideology of the motherland.
In Malaysia, the radio broadcast of communist party of Malaya was from beijing. Even their leaders reside there, letting the peasant army of mostly chinese immigrants do all the fighting.
I am not sure who the main backers of PKI are. But sukarno and zhou-En-lai were bossum buddies. During their time, the non-aligned movement were in their hands. I heard, after the downfall of PKI, millions of migrant chinese communities in indonesia either abandoned or fled to neighbouring countries or returned to china if they managed to escape persecution. There are chinese in china who still have the ability to speak bahasa indonesia.
Communism did not get much support in the phillipines and thailand, probably because the chinese communities there fled communism.
- Oigal Says:
October 23rd, 2007 at 9:37 am Ross, However outdated and silly your “pints” may be, it’s not nice to tell “big fat porkies” in order to belittle someone.
“Ogglet, who first made my acquaintance with the greeting ’sac of pus’ in another thread.”
Naughty man what was actually said was
Does anyone with an ounce of education and free thought actually believe that crock of pus anymore. Belly laughs all round, except for the hundreds of thousands who were slaughtered to satisfy a certain someone’s lust for power of course.
Tad different context, most would agree. Anyway you have become boring again till next time
Wait thats not fair..not totally boring
parrot the Comintern smear about Hoover, regardless of the fact it was a figment of some NKVD agents’s imagination
Is an absolute classic which stands tall on its own paraniod and delusional merits.. Seriously well done.
- Ross Says:
October 23rd, 2007 at 7:58 pm Here he goes again, accusing his antagonist of lying because I used the word sac instead of crock. They are both containers, and he used the phrase to describe his opponent’s explanation of what happened in 1965. By his own age-ist account, he was probably not born then and so should read other people’s books (besides the Jakarta Post’s pin-up lefty authors)who have something useful to say.
Achmad, many’s the red who battens on capitalist bucks to feed his face while subverting the system that feeds him.
But, now, friends and comrades, far from being obsessed, I am bored witless with Ogletski’s ranting fury, and until there is a new and more interesting thread, I propose to bow out, leaving the minerals satpam/commissar to froth about delusions whilst he swallows red propaganda whole. Of course the Soviet Secret Services never smeared anybody, Ogski, they were just nice guys who enjoyed chess and torture. Bleat on, Og, or read the Venona Papers, or at least something other than the Jakarta Post’s poster-child authors.
- Oigal Says:
October 24th, 2007 at 7:13 pm laugh, lots of abuse but nothing of interest Mr Hoover, don’t let the door hit you on the arse on the way out. However, I do apologise for using crock of pus to describe your sad version of history, it was way too kind.
RAJAHUTA(ROBERTMANURUNG)OWNER OF MERDEKA WORDPRESS BLOG AND TOBADREAM COPY CAT OF http://TOBA DREAM ORG
WARNING TO ALL BATAKS.
RAJA HUTA (ROBERT MANURUNG) Promoted BATAK ISLAM .he is islamic supporter.members of FPI in Jkt.
Posted by: tobadreams on: 9 Oktober, 2008
Namun dalam disertasi tersebut Uli selalu menyebut semuanya (Mandailing, Angkola, Toba, Karo, Pakpak dan Dairi) dengan nama Batak — misalnya penyebutan orang di Tanah Mandailing dengan kata “Mandailingbataksch” (Batak Mandailing). Dan, dapat disimpulkan kalau semua daerah itu memiliki akar budaya yang hampir sama, sehingga mempengaruhi aksara Batak yang memiliki banyak kesamaan satu sama lain.
Oleh : Ucok Lubis (Jerman)**
TOPIK seperti ini menarik sekali untuk dibahas, mengingat sebagian orang dari Mandailing masih mempertanyakan identitas kesukuannya.
Tetapi, sebelumnya aku mohon maaf kalau pendapatku ini dianggap tidak relevan, karena tidak bicara dengan bukti-bukti ilmiah seperti dilakukan Amang Zulkifli Lubis (lihat kotak komentar artikel “Ini Satu Lagi Bukti Bahwa Mandailing Adalah Batak“). Latar belakang aku bukan antropologi dan pengetahuan atas keidentitasan sukuku aku dapat dari keluargaku. Komentar yang akan kulontarkan berikut ini berdasarkan logika yang ada.
Aku sendiri tidak pernah ragu atau menolak untuk dibilang orang Batak, begitu pula seluruh keluarga besarku yang marga Lubis, Nasution, Pulungan, Rangkuti, dan lain-lain. Kami semua meyakini Mandailing itu bagian dari “bangsa Batak”. Menurutku, adanya emosi keagamaan yang berlebih saja, yang membuat sebagian orang dari tanah Mandailing menolak dikatakan Batak.
Posted by: tobadreams on: 30 September, 2008
Ini Lebaran pertama buat blog ini. Tentunya tidak demikian bagi Anda semua. Terlepas dari makna religiusnya bagi saudara-saudara kita yang muslim, Lebaran adalah peristiwa sosial-budaya yang penting dan melibatkan hampir semua orang di negara ini, terutama di kota-kota besar dan daerah-daerah yang heterogen.
Bagi orang Batak-Kristen yang tinggal di Tapanuli Selatan, Tanah Karo, Sumatera Timur, Jakarta, dan daerah-daerah lain di Indonesia; ikut merayakan lebaran dan mengucapkan Selamat Idul Fitri kepada para kerabat, tetangga, rekan kerja, dan relasi bisnis adalah hal yang sangat lumrah. Mereka menikmati perbuatan bijaksana itu sebagai kebajikan, solidaritas sosial, dan fiesta.
Posted by: tobadreams on: 29 September, 2008
Ciri khas Lebaran sebenarnya bukan hanya ketupat. Banyak sekali ragam kuliner yang menjadi makanan khas perayaan Idul Fitri di berbagai daerah, namun tidak diketahui oleh mayoritas warga Indonesia, lantaran media massa nasional terlalu jawa sentris.
Lomang, misalnya, adalah makanan khas dan bahkan sudah menjadi ikon Lebaran di kalangan etnis Batak yang beragama Islam, khususnya di Tapanuli Selatan. Lomang jauh lebih lezat– dan harum pula, dibandingkan dengan ketupat; seperti yang digambarkan dengan penuh cinta dan kerinduan oleh Halida Srikandini boru Pohan, dalam artikelnya yang terbaru ini.
This man wanted to be A great writer but look all his works nothing but useless an old news.sad but its true.
HUT XII HKBP Cal-USA, Ontario.What have U done to BAtak Land beside your believe in God?do U ever think about the batak economy/social welfare?
BATAK BUILD MONUMENT AS HIGH AS THE SKY. (sky is the limit) WHEN THEY GOT POWER AND MONEY RATHER THAN SOCIAL WELFARE FOR THEIR OWN CITIZEN OR POOR FAMILY.IS IT REALLY SHOWING OFF OR DUMB ?/or just human who live under the coconut shell?
holben sinaga; batak news; ikuti jejak dua letjen, luhut panjaitan dan tb silalahi]
Hanya segelintir orang Batak kaya dan berpendidikan yang peduli pada kampung halaman.
Artikel ini kuterima di imelku, bataknews [at] gmail [dot] com. Ditulis oleh Holben Wesly Sinaga, seorang lelaki yang berasal dari Kabupaten Samosir, kini bekerja dan tinggal di Singapura.
PERTAMA KALI DALAM sejarah orang Batak seorang pensiunan Jenderal membangun sekolah di tanah Batak. Dari salah satu majalah Batak yang saya baca, Bapak Luhut Panjaitan membangun sekolah dengan kerjasama Del. Mahasiswa dengan nota bene bukan dari kalangan yang berada dan sebagian besar murid tersebut berasal dari kalangan menengah ke bawah.
Saya sangat terharu ketika membaca ulasan tersebut karena Pak Luhut sampai saat ini masih melakukan negosiasi kerja sama dengan MIT, Harvard, dan Universitas ternama lainnya di USA.
Betapa tidak, dengan kondisi mahalnya sekolah sekolah unggulan dengan tanpa beban beliau memikirkan generasi Batak yang selanjutnya. Kehadiran beliau ibarat menemukan oase di padang pasir. Tentunya betapa doa-doa dari para orang tua kepada keluarga Bapak Panjaitan dan tidak putus putusnya harapan supaya beliau semakin sering menoleh dan meningkatkan kualitas hidup orang Batak.
Apabila kita melihat jumlah orang Batak yang kaya, akan sangat mudah memberikan nama dan marga secara jelas. Namun sangat disayangkan harta dan kekuasaan belum pernah cukup dan belum terbuka mata hati untuk meningkatkan atau paling tidak membuka peluang yang lebih baik untuk anak-anak daerah Batak.
Coba anda pergi ke Muara, pemandangan yang sangat fantastis, green look dan fresh air. Namun dengan mudah anda menemukan rumah yang reot, kumuh dan kandang babi bersebelahan dengan alat tenun.
Air mata saya hampir jatuh karena saya tidak menyangka masih ada suku Batak yang hidup di bawah garis kemiskinan. Ketika saya berjalan jalan sore di Muara, ada seorang ompung yang mengais-ngais di tempat pembuangan sampah di tempat hotel saya menginap.
God! Tanah Batak dengan segala kekayaan alamnya, semuanya ada, air, tanah yang subur, alam yang indah, sekecap terlihat seperti awan-awan. I have lost my happy feeling. Saya marah, sedih dan ingin berontak. Ke manakah saudaraku Batak?
Kalau berbicara Anak ni Raja & Boru ni Raja, sepertinya kita semua adalah orang yang “wealthy” dan dalam posisi yang sangat terhormat. Masihkah kita berani mengatakan saya Boru atau Anak ni Raja, sementara salah satu saudara kita terseok-seok kehidupannya di daerah Batak?
Masihkah kita berani pulang kampung (bonapasogit), setiap hari-hari besar atau acara pesta hanya sekedar pamer? Masihkan kita berhak disebut sebagai Anak atau Boru ni Raja dengan membangun tugu hampir mencapai langit, sementara d isebelah tugu berdiri dengan reot gereja yang hampir rubuh dan tidak bisa direnovasi sebagus dengan tugu?
Generasi Muda Batak bangunlah! Putra daerah Batak dengan tingkat inteligency di atas rata-rata suku lain. Berdasarkan statistic, sarjana putra daerah Batak menempati ranking pertama (tulisan di harian Kompas tahun 2000-an, mohon minta literature ke Kompas).
Saya bertanya kepada diri saya sendiri, selama ini konstribusi yang paling yang nyata dari para kalangan intelek dan dengan kondisi ekonomi yang mapan, where does it goes to?
Pak Luhut Panjaitan adalah pahlawan buat para orang tua yang tidak mampu, di bawah garis kemiskinan. Anak anak dengan tingkat kecerdasan di atas rata-rata dirangkul dan dibina melalui sekolah yang didirikan di Tanah Batak.
Salut buat pak Luhut, profesi bapak adalah “Pelayan Tuhan”, yang tidak ada bedanya dengan seorang Nommensen yang datang ke tanah Batak.
“Masih adakah a dedicated person? Who’s next? I hope that I can get the answer soon!” [www.blogberita.com]
CATATAN BLOG BERITA:
Sedikit melengkapi data pada artikel lae Holben Sinaga, tokoh Batak pertama yang membangun sekolah unggulan di Tanah Batak bukanlah Letjen TNI Luhut Panjaitan, melainkan Letjen TNI TB Silalahi; yaitu SMA Plus Yayasan Soposurung di Balige.
Bagiku pribadi, terlepas dari kelemahan mereka dalam hal lain, kedua tokoh ini, Luhut dan TB, adalah perantau Batak yang benar-benar peduli pada pembangunan pendidikan di kampung halamannya.
Aku sangat tertarik dengan pendapat lae soal kebiasaan orang Batak membangun tugu. Benar memang, tidak sedikit orang kita Batak yang bangga, bahkan cenderung pamer, membangun makam orangtua atau tugu kakeknya sampai menghabiskan uang puluhan juta, sementara pinomparna [saudara mereka yang lain] masih banyak yang hidup susah dan perlu dibantu.
Artikel terbaru dalam diaryku baca di sini.
|Batak Toba Memperbaharui Tradisi:
Efesiensi Ruma Bolon dan Lumbung Sopo
Ada dua macam perubahan, dengan dua macam tolok ukur pula. Yang pertama proses perubahan menjadi lebih baik dan yang kedua, proses perubahan dalam arti kemerosotan menjadi lebih buruk. Tolok ukur baik-buruk, di satu sisi adalah efesiensi ekonomi dalam berbagai aspek materinya, di sisi yang lain adalah kualitas imaterialnya, seperti terapan kompleks ide-ide dalam seluruh aspek kehidupan. Sebagaimana di belahan bumi lain di Indonesia, tradisi arsitektur rakyat Batak Toba di Tapanuli Utara, tampaknya ada pada tarik-menarik dua pandangan tersebut. Rumah dalam tradisi masa lalunya, kini dihadapkan pada perubahan mentalitas sosial dan sekaligus resources yang makin langka. Perubahan, pada hakikatnya adalah merupakan proses pembaharuan kehidupan, termasuk arsitektur rakyat. Di sini, “baru” artinya segar dan menyegarkan nuansa hidup dan kehidupan baik masyarakat manusia maupun masyarakat alam. Dapatkah rakyat Batak Toba mencapainya?
Warisan religi dan peradaban megalit
Untuk itu, Batak Toba akan lebih baik dipahami dengan melihat peradaban dan kebudayaan proto-malayunya yang membawakan pada generasi kini, sisa-sisa tradisi peradaban mega dan neo-litikum. Di baliknya, adalah sistem kepercayaan kuno yang menjadi sumber inspirasi konsep-konsep arsitekturnya.
Bekas tiang-tiang dari batu yang dinamai oleh penduduk Sombaon Sibasiha (Keramat Tiang) di Desa Sibodiala di pedalaman Kota Balige, meja-meja dan kursi-kursi batu raja-raja Sialagan di Ambarita, Prapat, dan batu-kubur (rumah tulang) dan Candi Portibi di Padang Lawas (Tapanuli Selatan) adalah artefak-artefak perjalanan peradaban Batak Toba sampai dengan awal persinggungannya dengan Hiduisme. Begitu pula yang dapat dipahami dari prasasti bertahun 1208 yang ditemukan di Lobu Tua, ialah bahwa Kota Barus di pantai Barat Sumatera berperan sebagai “daerah tepi” bagi wilayah peradaban Batak Toba kuno yang berhubungan dengan dunia luar. Buktinya, sekitar tahun 1088, tercatat ada 1500 orang Tamil dari India Selatan bertempat tinggal di Barus, membentuk kesatuan perdagangan kapur barus dan kemenyan. Di abad XI, Islam pun datang di Sumatera pantai Barat melalui Barus. Tanah Toba sebagai salah satu “daerah pusat” budaya Batak, lambat laun pun menyerap dan mendewasakan dirinya, mengambil bentuk-bentuk penyesuaian. Hal itu dapat dilacak lewat antropologi bahasa, arkeologi kesenian, sejarah arsitekturnya dan lain-lain.
Perubahan mencolok mulai terjadi di awal 1970-an. Ada langgam arsitektur yang tersingkir oleh “rumah-rumah baru” yang lambat laun mengubah wajah perdesaan Toba. Sebagaimana yang terjadi di hampir seantero Nusantara sejak awal 1970-an, semangat gotong royong di desa-desa sudah kendur. Lewat proyek-proyek Pelita di masa Orde Baru, tradisi gotong royong sebagai “social capital”, tanpa disengaja telah terubah menjadi kerja berupah. Kemampuan masyarakat secara sosial-budaya, untuk mendirikan rumah adat sekarang ini pun, dengan demikian makin mengecil pula. Tambahan lagi jumlah nara sumber yang mengetahui dan menghayati nilai-nilai adat sudah jauh berkurang. Bahkan, beredar pula pandangan yang menganggap tidak perlu lagi hal-hal yang lama dan usang itu dipelihara. Selain masalah ekonomi bahan bangunan dan konstruksi, masyarakat tampaknya tengah memperbaharui tradisinya.
Mengubah kolong, gorga dan atap ijuk
Untuk mengikuti perubahan yang terjadi, perlu diingat bahwa dalam tradisi Batak Toba ada 2 jenis bangunan: rumah (ruma) dan lumbung padi (sopo). Rumah adalah “inganani jolma” yang artinya rumah adalah tempat tinggal bagi anak-anak manusia sedangkan sopo sebenarnya dirancang dan dibangun untuk “inganani barang” yang artinya tempat untuk barang-barang (Sukamto, 1980:47). Namun sopo juga merupakan bangunan serba guna: siang hari sebagai tempat pertemuan warga atau sebagai tempat perempuan menenun kain dan pada malam hari untuk tidur para pemuda. Umumnya pada huta (kampung atau kelompok hunian), ada dua deret ―deret ruma dan deret sopo― yang dipisahkan oleh ruang terbuka yang bersih, tidak ditanami. Di ruangan ini dilakukan bermacam-macam kegiatan sehari-hari sedangkan bagian belakang rumah kurang diperhatikan, sering ditanami sayur dan juga sebagai tempat pembuangan sampah. Bagian bawah kolong rumah zaman dahulu dipakai sebagai kandang binatang peliharaan.
Bangunan ruma dikenal dengan adanya tangga dan jalan masuk berupa pintu angkat yang berada pada lantai pertama yang tingginya kurang lebih hanya 1,60 m di atas tanah, sehingga sulit untuk masuk dengan membawa barang-barang yang besar, tinggi atau panjang. Lumbung atau sopo dibangun pada satu sisi dan rumah-rumah dibangun pada sisi yang lain, pintu masuknya dari dinding depan bukan dari bawah lantai panggungnya. Jalan desa berorientasi Timur�Barat, sehingga bagian depan rumah tersebut menghadap ke Selatan sedangkan lumbung padi atau sopo menghadap ke Utara. Namun dalam hal tertentu rumah-rumah tersebut diorientasikan ke arah tempat pengorbanan (somboan) di gunung yang keramat (simanuk-manuk). Sekarang banyak sopo yang berubah menjadi ruma. Sisa cirinya tinggal cakram penahan hama tikus yang dipasang di tiang-tiangnya.
Rumah Batak Toba melambangkan tri tunggal benua yaitu banua atas dilambangkan dengan atap rumah untuk tempat dewa, banua tengah dilambangkan dengan lantai dan dinding untuk tempat manusia dan banua bawah dilambangkan dengan kolong untuk tempat kematian. Sejak tahun 1970-an, nilai-nilai kesemestaan dalam pola pikir Toba tampaknya mulai berubah lebih cepat.Untuk kenyamanan dan akses, makin banyak rumah baru yang dibangun dengan tangga masuk yang berada di dinding depan, tak lagi di bawah lantai panggung. Bahkan ruma baru diubah total menjadi tanpa kolong. Artinya, secara praksis, konsepsi tentang dunia bawah sudah berubah seiring berubahnya konsepsi kesemestaan menurut agama yang sekarang dianut sebahagian besar masyarakat Batak Toba, yaitu Kristianisme.
Tradisi Toba sebetulnya mempunyai kelenturan jauh sebelum tahun 1970-an. Contohnya, mendirikan rumah adat yang memerlukan tenaga, biaya yang besar dan memakan waktu yang cukup lama tak harus sesuai dengan standart “jadi”. Banyak rumah yang seharusnya belum selesai sesuai dengan norma ataupun kaidah-kaidah adat yang berlaku, sudah ditempati. Antara rumah yang sudah selesai dengan rumah yang belum selesai dinamakan: “jabu bontean”. Ada pula “jabu ereng” yaitu sejenis rumah tempat tinggal yang tidak berukiran, tetapi dindingnya terbuat dari papan yang sudah diketam halus dan dipasang rapi. Rumah adat yang mempunyai hiasan lengkap disebut dengan “jabu Batara Guru”, “jabu Sibaganding Tua” atau ruma gorga. Rumah adat yang dahulu banyak ukiran sekarang sudah tidak ada lagi dan dibuat lebih sederhana. Perubahan itu tampaknya seiring dengan perubahan pemandangan desa yang sangat mencolok: dipakainya penutup atap seng pengganti ijuk.
Lenyapnya ijuk sebagai penutup atap adalah petunjuk pula bahwa rumah tradisional hanya tinggal sedikit di daerah Batak Toba dan bahkan hampir punah. Banyaknya kebakaran pada zaman dahulu atau faktor iklim tropis-lembab menyebabkan pula rumah tempat maupun lumbung masih tersisa, warnanya sudah banyak luntur akibat hujan. Atap ijuk juga terlalu mahal untuk dipelihara.
Jika atap ijuk dan ornamentasi ruma dan sopo mulai ditanggalkan, begitu pula dimensi dan ruang dalamnya. Meski ada kelenturan dalam tradisi membangun Batak Toba yang menghasilkan “jabu parbalebalean” (rumah yang agak kecil) dan ruma bolon (rumah besar), namun membangun rumah yang lebih sederhana adalah tuntutan kekinian. Dulu, ruang-ruang dalam tidak disekat, namun masih terdapat pembagian-pembagian yang tidak kasat mata. Sekarang baik pada rumah yang kecil maupun terutama pada ruma bolon, sering dijumpai adanya sekat-sekat papan untuk mendapatkan privasi.
Efesiensi joro bagi para arwah
Perubahan tak hanya bagi yang masih hidup, tapi akhirnya juga diterapkan pada yang telah wafat. Rumah tulang lama yang dibuat dari batu atau kayu, beberapa tahun terakhir ini telah diganti semen atau kapur. Karena itu rumah tulang sekarang disebut simin yang berasal dari kata semen. Struktur rumah tulang tidak lagi sama dengan rumah tinggal. tidak ada lagi balok wuwung yang melengkung berbentuk trapesium atau ulu ni rumah singa dan tidak berhias ornamen tradisional, digantikan simbol salib.
Begitu pula dengan joro: rumah miniatur dari kayu beratap ijuk yang dibuat untuk seseorang yang telah wafat. Joro memiliki ukiran kayu dan hiasan yang indah sebagaimana halnya yang terdapat pada rumah sebenarnya. Dengan demikian joro “benar-benar rumah” dalam ukuran kecil, untuk si wafat. Rumah miniatur ini dibangun oleh janda dari suami yang telah meninggal, terutama apabila ia tanpa anak laki-laki (punu), tidak mempunyai saudara ipar laki-laki yang dapat mewarisinya sebagai istri atau jika ia terlalu tua untuk melahirkan anak lagi.
Mendirikan bolon, sopo berkolong (panggung) atau joro sekarang menjadi lebih sulit karena bahan-bahannya sukar dicari dan biaya mendirikannya jauh lebih besar dari pada rumah dan joro model baru tanpa kolong. Masyarakat pedesaaan Toba menginginkan konstruksi yang lebih praktis, mudah didirikan dan biaya yang lebih murah.
Sangat boleh jadi perubahan pandangan hidup masa kini yang sarat dengan nilai-nilai ekonomilah yang memicu perubahan itu. Berarti, pemaknaan atau tata nilai religius lama yang dibawakan oleh ornamen itu tak lagi terterapkan dalam kehidupan karena sudah digantikan dengan tata nilai baru. Jika tata nilai itu masih diterapkan, pasti representasinya pada simbol-simbol arsitektural tetap eksis dengan yang metoda yang lebih ekonomis. Jadi di permukaan kasat mata, perubahan ini tampak disebabkan faktor ketersediaan bahan atau kemampuan finansial untuk membiayai pembuatan atap berpenutup ijuk, pengukiran ruma gorga atau tiang-tiang kolong dan unsur-unsur tradisi arsitektur lainnya. Tetapi di kedalaman fenomena kasat mata itu baru tampak sebab yang lebih mendasar: berubahnya mentalitas, tata nilai dan pola pikir masyarakat dari tradisi megalitik dan neolitik ―sebagian besar― ke tradisi kristianisme.
|Kepustakaan & Kredit ilustrasi
Building Research Institute, 1973, Traditional Buildings Of Indonesia-Volume 1Batak TobaBandung, The Regional Housing Centre, Bandung.
Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan RI, 1997, Arsitektur Tradisional Daerah Sumatera Utara, Depdikbud, Jakarta
Sukanto, Edwin. 1980, Makalah Sejarah Arsitektur Tradisional Batak, Fakultas Teknik Arsitektur ITS, Surabaya (tak diterbitkan).
CCngaMangaraja was Killed by the Dutch and now BATAK still couldnt get up and manage their own affairs.too busy calling Gods name.the reality so many batak overseas and enjoy life with the dutch rathen after dutch gone from Indonesia.
Pahlawan Nasional yg didalangi oleh guerilla islam seluruh indonesia.ccngamangaraja was islam yg terpaksa atau di paksa laskar jihad islam seperti yg terjadi di ambon yg di dalangi oleh FPI.ingat?
Perjuangannya untuk memerdekakan ‘manusia bermata hitam’ dari penindasan penjajahan si mata putih (sibontar mata), tidak terbatas pada orang Tapanuli (Batak) saja, tetapi diartikan secara luas dalam rangka nasional.
Semua orang yang bermata hitam dianggapnya saudara dan harus dibela dari penjajahan si mata putih (sibontar mata). Dia merasa dekat dengan siapa saja yang tidak melakukan penindasan, tanpa membedakan asal-usul. Maka ia pun mengangkat panglimanya yang berasal dari Aceh.
Dengan dasar itulah, sehingga ketika pertempuran melawan penjajah Belanda di Balige tahun 1883, Si Singamangaraja XII berupaya mendekati serdadu Belanda yang antara lain terdiri dari saudara-saudara sebangsa dari Jawa yang jelas juga bermata hitam. Ia mencoba memberitahukan persaudaraan di antara mereka dibandingkan dengan orang Belanda, yang ketika itu diidentikkan dengan sekelompok etnis bermata putih yang suka melakukan penindasan.
Raja Si Singamangaraja XII yang lahir pada tahun 1849 di Bakkara, Tapanuli, sebuah daerah di tepian Danau Toba, ini diangkat menjadi raja pada tahun 1867 menggantikan ayahnya Raja Si Singamangaraja XI yang meninggal dunia akibat penyakit kolera. Sebagaimana leluhurnya, sejak Si Singamangaraja II, gelar Raja dan kepemimpinan selalu diturunkan dari pendahulunya secara turun temurun.
Sebagaimana dengan Si Singamangaraja I sampai XI, beliau juga merupakan seorang pemimpin yang sangat menentang perbudakan yang memang masih lazim masa itu. Jika beliau pergi ke satu desa (huta), beliau selalu meminta agar penduduk desa tersebut memerdekakan orang yang sedang dipasung karena hutang atau kalah perang, orang-orang yang ditawan yang hendak diperjualbelikan dan diperbudak.
Pada masa pemerintahannya, kegiatan zending pengembangan agama Kristen oleh Nommensen Cs dari Jerman juga sedang berlangsung di Tapanuli. Tidak begitu lama dengan itu, kekuasaan kolonial Belanda pun mulai memasuki daerah Tapanuli. Maka untuk menghadapi segala kemungkinan, ia pun mulai mengadakan persiapan-persiapan dengan mengadakan musyawarah dengan raja-raja serta panglima daerah Humbang, Toba, Samosir, dan Pakpak/Dairi.
Perang urat syaraf pun makin meningkat pada kedua belah pihak. Walaupun sudah dicoba, jalan damai sudah tidak dapat lagi ditempuh. Maka pada tanggal 19 Pebruari 1878 serangan mulai dilancarkan pasukan Si Singamangaraja XII yaitu rakyat Tapanuli sendiri terhadap pos pasukan Belanda di Bahal Batu, dekat Tarutung.
Pertempuran yang menewaskan banyak penduduk tersebut akhirnya memaksa pasukan Si Singamangaraja mundur. Tapi walaupun harus mundur dari Bahal Batu, semangat juang perlawanan pasukan itu masih tetap tinggi terutama di desa-desa yang belum tunduk pada Belanda seperti Butar, Lobu Siregar, Tangga Batu, dan Balige selaku basis pasukan Si Singamangaraja XII ketika penyerangan ke Bahal Batu.
Sebaliknya di pihak Belanda, dengan kemenangan di Bahal Batu tersebut, semakin berani mengejar terus pasukan Si Singamangaraja XII sampai ke desa-desa yang tidak tunduk pada kolonial. Dalam pengejaran tersebut, mereka selalu membakar desa dan menawan raja-raja desa. Akibatnya, pertempuran pun berkobar di mana-mana seperti di Sipintu-pintu, Tangga Batu, Balige, Bakkara dan sebagainya.
Bahkan dalam pertempuran kedua di Balige, Si Singamangaraja XII sempat terkena peluru di atas lengan, walau lukanya tidak sampai membahayakan nyawanya namun kuda putihnya si hapas pili mati ketika itu. Ia pun melakukan perang gerilia.
Dengan begitu, Si Singamangaraja XII pun terpaksa berpindah-pindah seperti dari Balige ke Bakkara kemudian ke Huta Paung di Dolok Sanggul, selanjutnya ke Lintong (kampung pamannya (tulang) Ompu Babiat Situmorang) dan kembali lagi ke Bakkara, begitulah terkadang berulang. Dan ketika kedua kalinya Si Singamangaraja XII menyingkir ke Lintong, Belanda pun menyerbu ke sana secara tiba-tiba pada tahun 1989.
Sehingga usaha untuk menangkapnya mati atau hidup semakin diaktifkan. Dan setelah melalui pengepungan yang ketat selama tiga tahun, akhirnya markasnya ketahuan oleh serdadu Belanda. Dalam pengejaran dan pengepungan yang sangat rapi, peristiwa tragis pun terjadi. Dalam satu pertempuran jarak dekat, komandan pasukan Belanda kembali memintanya menyerah dan akan dinobatkan menja Sultan Batak. Namun pahlawan yang merasa tidak mau tunduk pada penjajah ini lebih memilih lebih baik mati daripada menyerah.
Dalam sejarah perjuangan nasional Indonesia, ia seorang pejuang yang tidak mau berkompromi dengan Belanda. Sehingga terjadilah pertempuran sengit yang menewaskan hampir seluruh keluarganya melawan penjajah. Patuan Bosar Ompu Pulo Batu atau Raja Si Singamangaraja XII bersama dua putra dan satu putrinya serta beberapa panglimanya yang berasal dari Aceh gugur pada saat yang sama yaitu tanggal 17 Juni 1907 di Sionom Hudon. Kedua putranya itu yaitu putra sulungnya Patuan Nagari dan Patuan Anggi sedangkan putrinya bernama boru Lopian, srikandi sejati yang masih berumur 17 tahun.
Raja Si Singamangaraja XII tepatnya gugur di hutan daerah Simsim, Sindias di kaki gunung Sitapongan, kurang lebih 9-10 km dari Pearaja, Sionom Hudon, Tapanuli, Sumatera Utara. (Disebut Sionom Hudon, sesuai dengan keenam marga yang menguasai daerah itu yaitu Tinambunan, Tumanggor, Maharaja, Pinayungan, Turutan, dan Anakampun). Jenazahnya mula-mula dimakamkan di Tarutung, kemudian dipindahkan ke Sopo Surung Balige.
Keluarga Si Singamangaraja XII yang turut gugur dalam pertempuran melawan kolonial Belanda tersebut bukan hanya dua putra dan putri yang sangat disayanginya tersebut, tapi tidak lama sebelumnya, abangnya yang bernama Ompu Parlopuk juga sudah gugur ketika melancarkan perang Gerilya tersebut. Demikian halnya dengan sang Permaisuri Raja Si Singamangaraja XII, boru Situmorang, juga telah lebih dulu meninggal tidak lama sebelum wafatnya Si Singamangaraja XII akibat keletihan bergerilya di tengah hutan.
Bahkan, Pulo Batu, cucu yang sangat disayanginya, harus meninggal di usia muda sebelum kakeknya. Raja Si Singamangaraja XII alias Ompu Pulo Batu (Ompu Pulo Batu merupakan penamaan yang diambil dari nama cucu laki-laki paling sulung dari putranya paling sulung, dalam hal ini Pulo Batu merupakan anak sulung dari Patuan Nagari), akhirnya harus sama-sama wafat dengan cucu yang sebelumnya sangat diharapkannya menjadi penerus perjuangannya itu.
Perang Batak yang dipimpin Si Singamangaraja XII di Tapanuli, Sumatera Utara yang pecah sejak tahun 1878 itu, akhirnya berakhir sudah. Sejarah mencatat, ketika gugurnya sang pahlawan ini yang menjadi Gubernur Jenderal yaitu pemangku jabatan Kerajaan Belanda yang tertinggi daerah kolonial di Nusantara adalah Gubernur Jenderal J.B.van Heutsz, sedangkan Gubernur Militer di Aceh yang mencakup Sumatera Utara adalah Jenderal G.O.E.van Daalen.
Dan dibawah pasukan Kapten Christoffel alias ‘Si Macan Aceh’, seorang berkebangsaan Swiss yang sebelumnya hanya merupakan serdadu bayaran, namun kemudian tahun 1906 menjadi warga negara Belanda, akhirnya sang pahlawan, Raja Si Singamangaraja XII gugur tertembak.
Kapten Christoffel yang melaporkan gugurnya Raja Si Singamangaraja XII di Tanah Batak kepada Gubernur Jenderal J.B.van Heutsz di Bogor ketika itu membawa bukti jarahan berupa Piso Gaja Dompak dan Stempel Kerajaan. Stempel kerajaan dan Piso Gaja Dompak pun secara resmi disampaikan oleh Bataviaaschap Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen (Lembaga Kebudayaan dan Ilmu Pengetahuan di Batavia) pada rapatnya tanggal 7 Agustus 1907 kepada Museum di Gedung Gajah (Jalan Merdeka Barat sekarang-red). Piso Gaja Dompak waktu itu diberi tanda nomor 13425.
Mengenai pusaka yang satu ini, beberapa kalangan anggota keluarga Raja Si Singamangaraja XII mengklaim, bahwa Piso Gajah Dompak yang sebenarnya masih disimpan oleh anggota keluarga. Sementara yang lain mengatakan bahwa salah seorang dari pihak boru (pihak dari anak perempuan) yang menyimpannya. Bahkan ada pula yang mengatakan bahwa Piso Gaja Dompak itu telah menghilang ke langit.
Piso Gaja Dompak itu sendiri adalah satu keris yang panjangnya sekitar 60-70 cm dengan pegangan yang menyerupai patung gajah. Menurut keluarga Si Singamangaraja dan berdasarkan hasil penelitian berbagai sarjana, pusaka ini sudah ada sejak Si Singamangaraja I yaitu sekitar pertengahan abad XVI Masehi. Bersama stempel kerajaan, pusaka tersebut merupakan lambang penting dari pemerintahan Raja Si Singamangaraja I sampai ke XII.
Perang yang berlangsung selama 30 tahun itu memang telah mengakibatkan korban yang begitu banyak bagi rakyat termasuk keluarga Si Singamangaraja XII sendiri. Tapi walaupun Si Singamangaraja XII telah wafat, tidak berarti secara langsung membuat perang di tanah Batak berakhir, sebab sesudahnya terbukti masih banyak perlawanan dilakukan oleh rakyat Tapanuli khususnya pengikut dari Si Singamangaraja XII sendiri.
Di hati rakyat sudah tumbuh semangat kemerdekaan dari segala bentuk penindasan seperti yang sudah ditanamkan sang pahlawan. Namun perlawanan rakyat itu tidak lagi sebesar perlawanan yang dipimpin Si Singamangaraja XII, sebab Belanda sudah semakin banyak menguasai kampung-kampung. Di samping itu, ketika itu pemimpin perlawanan rakyat itu pun belum ada yang bisa menyamai Si Singamangaraja XII yang bisa menghimpun semua raja-raja di Tapanuli bahkan dari Aceh.
Sejak itu sejarah baru pun tertulis. Daerah Aceh dan Sumatera Utara bagian pedalaman yang sampai tahun 1903 masih belum bisa dikuasai Belanda dan bahkan sebelum wafatnya Si Singamangaraja XII pada tanggal 17 Juni 1907 itu, kekuasaan Hindia Belanda di Nusantara masih minus Sumatera Utara bagian pedalaman, akhirnya berakhir. Sejak itu lengkaplah seluruh wilayah Nusantara menjadi daerah jajahan Belanda sebab Sumatera Utara bagian pedalaman inilah yang merupakan daerah terakhir di Nusantara yang dimasukkan ke dalam kekuasaan pemerintahan penjajahan Belanda.